Figure 1. Sudden Death Syndrome in soybeans.
Conditions lately have been good for the fungus that causes white mold. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a soilborne pathogen that will cause white fluffy growth on the lower stems of beans, and ultimately form hard, black structures that may survive for years. Under a thick canopy with little air flow is where this fungus thrives, so get down low and scout as many locations in your field as possible. It spreads slowly on its own, but once you've got it in a field it is incredibly difficult to get rid of it.
Anne Dorrance, Plant Pathologist at Ohio State, advises us to: "Monitor fields. First, make note of the variety that was planted, if infections are above 20% incidence (more than 20 plants out of 100 are infected), then drop this variety from your lineup. Second, harvest these fields after all of the other fields are harvested. The approach here is to prevent contaminating additional fields."
There are some fungicides labeled for white mold, however it is challenging to get a spray to the lower stem where it is needed past the R3 growth stage.
Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot
We think of Phytophthora mostly as an early-season, cool, wet weather-favored pathogen. While this is accurate, sometimes we only see the symptoms well after the initial damage to the plant has been done. In older plants you may see wilting and yellowing in the upper canopy as a result of an infection that took place in the roots shortly after planting. Only now is it showing up as the plants become more water stressed.
When you see these foliar symptoms, pull up a few plants and observe the lower stems and roots. In a plant affected by Phytophthora, you may find a poor or necrotic root system along with lesions that may progress up the stem. For a detailed review of this disease and its management, please see this article on Phytophthora.
Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome and Brown Stem Rot
Sudden death syndrome of soybean (SDS) has begun to show up in isolated cases around the state. The symptoms of this disease are pretty striking, but can be mimicked by other diseases like brown stem rot or injury from chemicals. You will first notice yellowing progressing to browning between the leaf veins, while the vein area stays green.
This is a soil-borne disease affecting the roots caused by a fungus (Fusarium virguliforme). This fungus can attack the roots at any time in the season, including long after many seed treatments may have lost efficacy.
Even though this is a root disease, the first symptoms you'll see are in the leaves. Early on you may notice some distortion of new growth, but you'll definitely react to the next stage which shows itself as a distinct yellowing then browning between the veins resulting in a striking contrast of coloration (Figure 1- SDS in soybeans.). This symptom alone is not enough to be sure you have SDS since Brown stem rot (BSR) and a few other diseases can show this--you'll also need to slice open the stem lengthwise and observe the tissue there. In a plant affected by SDS, the tissue on either side of the pith (the very middle part) will start browning. Meanwhile, a plant affected by BSR will show browning inside the pith itself and the areas to either side will remain white. Further SDS affected plants may also have root rot and a grayish discoloration (sometimes with a bluish cast to it) of the tap root. The blue color is the fungus itself, but often disappears as the root dries out.
SDS becomes a problem first in areas of high compaction and poor drainage. This is why it appears in a spotty pattern in the field. It will not become a problem every year, since environmental conditions won't always be right. However, once you observe SDS be sure to select a bean variety with resistance to SDS to plant in that field each year. The fungus can survive for long periods of time.
While fungicides are not generally helpful for this disease, and seed treatment efficacy is not yet known, we do have resistance available in our soybean lines that is quite good. There is a strong link between the presence of this disease and infection by soybean cyst nematode. While we don't seem to have a historical problem with this nematode in PA, it might be worth sending a soil sample for testing if you have any suspicions.
Nematode Testing Services
Speaking of nematodes… We don't think of PA having widespread nematode problems in field crops. However, as more equipment and soil move around the country due to activities like custom work and gas pipelines, coupled with the effects of climate change, we should be vigilant about the potential for previously unseen problems. While some nematode problems can be diagnosed in the field, laboratory assay of soil and roots is typically necessary to confirm field observations and is critical in determining crop rotations. Reading nematode samples requires highly specialized expertise, is time-consuming, and can be costly. We are fortunate that the nearby University of Delaware is able to provide this important and unique service to the mid-Atlantic region. Please see below for a schedule of services available associated and fees. To contain costs, the assay service is currently only accepting commercial vegetable and field crop samples.
The 2014-2016 UD Vegetable and Field Crop Nematode Assay Service price structure is as follows:
|Assay||Price (as of 9/1/14)|
|Vegetable and agronomic crops juvenile assay||$50 per sample|
|Soybean cyst nematode egg assay||$30 per sample|
|3 day rush analysis||Additional $20 per sample|
A 10-14 day turnaround time will be required for most samples. A 3-day-rush analysis can be conducted for an additional $20 per sample.
Please note, the University of Delaware no longer analyzes fruit and ornamental nematode samples. The Virginia Tech Nematode Assay Laboratory has agreed to accept Pennsylvania fruit and ornamental nematode samples. The cost for PA samples accepted by the Virginia Tech lab will be $25.
Virginia Tech sample submission instructions and forms.