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Effects of Biosolids on Soil and Crop Quality
Effects of Biosolids on Soil and Crop Quality - Articles Articles
Results of a three-year research project that investigated how agronomic biosolids utilization has affected soil and crop quality. More
What is sewage sludge and what can be done with it? What is sewage sludge and what can be done with it? - Articles
In this document, “sewage sludge” will refer to wastewater treatment solids generally, and “biosolids” will refer specifically to material that is suitable for land application. More
Hydraulic Load Test Hydraulic Load Test - Articles

Hydraulic Load Test

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

The Hydraulic Load Test is included as a component of the PSMA On-Lot Wastewater Inspection. More
Newly installed three chamber septic and pump tank (Photo by Amy Galford)
Funding for Private Well and Septic System Repairs - Articles Articles
Major repairs or replacement of septic system and drinking water wells can be costly, but there are sources of financial assistance for homeowners. More
Water Conservation - How Much Water and Money Can You Save?
Water Conservation - How Much Water and Money Can You Save? - Articles Articles
Determine how much water you currently use and the amount of water and money you could save by installing water-conserving devices. More
Use of Dyes and Tracers to Confirm Septic System Failures Use of Dyes and Tracers to Confirm Septic System Failures - Articles
Commercially available dyes and tracers can be used where additional testing is needed to detect or confirm on-lot sewage disposal system malfunctions. More
Septic Tank Pumping Septic Tank Pumping - Articles

Septic Tank Pumping

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

Septic tanks should be inspected and pumped on a regular basis to prevent malfunctions. More
Site Evaluation for On-lot Sewage Systems Site Evaluation for On-lot Sewage Systems - Articles
Proper design and operation of an on-lot sewage system hinges on the ability of the soil to absorb and renovate the wastewater flowing from the treatment tank. More
On-Lot Wastewater Systems; The Basics On-Lot Wastewater Systems; The Basics - Articles

On-Lot Wastewater Systems; The Basics

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

The components and function of on-lot wastewater systems and the regulatory system governing their use is described. More
Individual Residential Spray Irrigation Systems (IRSIS) Individual Residential Spray Irrigation Systems (IRSIS) - Articles
The Individual Residential Spray Irrigation System was developed and is designed to treat wastewater for sites with certain restrictive soil conditions. More
Geotextile Sand Filter (GSF) On-Lot Systems
Geotextile Sand Filter (GSF) On-Lot Systems - Articles Articles
The Geotextile Sand Filter (GSF) on-lot sewage disposal system can be designed and installed on sites with restrictive soil conditions. More
Figure 1. Cross-section through a Micro-Mound
Drip-Irrigation Micro-Mound - Articles Articles

Drip-Irrigation Micro-Mound

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

The Drip-Irrigation Micro-Mound On-Lot Wastewater System is a method of distributing treatment tank (septic or aerobic) effluent to the natural soil. More
Elevated Sand Mounds for On-lot Wastewater Treatment Elevated Sand Mounds for On-lot Wastewater Treatment - Articles
An elevated sand mound is a constructed mound of sandy fill material placed on top of the 20 to 60 inches of natural or prevailing soil. More
Biomats
Biomats - Articles Articles

Biomats

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

A Biomat is a layer of partially decomposed organic waste often found on the bottom and sides of an absorption area’s trenches. This anaerobic condition prevents decomposition of waste. More
Drip Irrigation On-lot Sewage Disposal System
Drip Irrigation On-lot Sewage Disposal System - Articles Articles
Drip Irrigation is an Alternate On-Lot Sewage Disposal System. More
At-Grade and Shallow At-Grade On-Lot Systems
At-Grade and Shallow At-Grade On-Lot Systems - Articles Articles
At-Grade systems are an approved disposal method for on-lot wastewater in Pennsylvania. More
Aerobic Treatment Units Aerobic Treatment Units - Articles

Aerobic Treatment Units

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

Aerobic treatment units, also called activated sludge tanks, are a common method of biological treatment used in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. More
A Lexicon for Alternate On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems
A Lexicon for Alternate On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems - Articles Articles
Examples of alternate systems include: Steep Slope Elevated Sand Mounds, Drip Disposal, Chamber Systems, and Peat Filters. More
There are steps that you can take to help prevent septic waste from backing up into your home during flooding. Photo: George Hurd, Penn State Extension
Protecting Your Septic System From Flooding - Articles Articles
Although your septic system may work well during dry weather, too much water from flooding or heavy rains can cause problems. More
Coliform Bacteria
Coliform Bacteria - Articles Articles

Coliform Bacteria

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

This article describes what coliform bacteria are, where they come from and how to remove them from drinking water. More