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Tansparency Tube
FISH: Understanding Your Transparency Tube Measurements - Articles Articles
Part of the "First Investigation of Stream Health" activity. Transparency tubes are popular for use in stream monitoring programs. More
Bullfrog. Photo: Lesa Willis
FISH: Pennsylvania Frog and Toad Breeding Phenology - Articles Articles

FISH: Pennsylvania Frog and Toad Breeding Phenology

Jennifer R Fetter, Kristen Kyler

Part of the "First Investigation of Stream Health" activity. In central Pennsylvania there are three distinct periods in which potential species can be expected to begin breeding. More
Managing Your Restored Wetland
Managing Your Restored Wetland - Articles Articles

Managing Your Restored Wetland

Margaret C. Brittingham, Ph.D., Charles Andrew Cole, Ph.D., Robert P Brooks, Ph.D.

This manual for landowners describes where wetland restoration is possible and how it is done. It covers basic wetland concepts, ecological concepts and terms, wetland restoration, and maintenance. More
Mosquito fern can cover the pond surface. Photo: Adam McClain, Adams County Conservation District
Mosquito Fern in Pennsylvania Ponds - Articles Articles
Mosquito fern is a Pennsylvania native waterfern that can be a nuisance in your pond. More
Water Chestnut Rosette Photo: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut,
Focus on Aquatic Invasive Species – European Water Chestnut - Articles Articles
The European Water chestnut has nothing to do with the edible variety. It is a rooted aquatic plant that can dominate ponds, shallow lakes, and rivers. More
An aquatic herbicide being applied with a backpack sprayer.
Permit Requirement for Use of An Aquatic Herbicide in Ponds - Articles Articles
If you use any aquatic herbicide on your pond to control algae or aquatic plants, you must first obtain a state permit. More
Fish ponds provide can aesthetic beauty, wildlife habitat, fishing, swimming, as well as water for livestock, irrigation, or fire protection.
Management of Fish Ponds in Pennsylvania - Articles Articles

Management of Fish Ponds in Pennsylvania

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

Are you building a new pond on your property? Do you already have a pond that you use for swimming, irrigation, fishing, or other activities? More
Water Quality Concerns for Ponds
Water Quality Concerns for Ponds - Articles Articles
This is a summary of some common water quality parameters that may cause problems in ponds and how to detect and treat them. More
Triploid grass carp are one potential management strategy for aquatic plants in your pond
Using Grass Carp to Control Aquatic Plants - Articles Articles

Using Grass Carp to Control Aquatic Plants

Bryan Swistock, Jennifer R Fetter, Amy Galford, James Andrew Clark

This information explains how to use grass carp for biological aquatic vegetation control. More
Pond Measurements: Area, Volume and Residence Time
Pond Measurements: Area, Volume and Residence Time - Articles Articles
An explanation of basic pond measurements that are vital to basic pond management practices. More
Pond Ecology
Pond Ecology - Articles Articles

Pond Ecology

Bryan Swistock

A brief overview of the natural processes of an earthen pond and how to maintain a healthy pond. More
Pond Assessment and Inspection
Pond Assessment and Inspection - Articles Articles
This article discusses some of the critical components of a typical pond that should be identified and inspected before tackling pond management issues. More
Planktonic Algae
Planktonic Algae - Articles Articles

Planktonic Algae

Bryan Swistock

Planktonic algae floats in the water column and can sometimes be confused with muddy water. It causes the water to look green, brown or reddish in color. More
Naiad - Articles Articles


Bryan Swistock

One of the most common native, submerged pond plants in Pennsylvania. More
Mid-Atlantic Pocket Guide to Water Garden Species
Mid-Atlantic Pocket Guide to Water Garden Species - Articles Articles
This information is intended to help select native aquatic plant alternatives and avoid invasive plant species. This guide is intended as a portable reference. More
Interpreting Water Tests for Ponds and Lakes
Interpreting Water Tests for Ponds and Lakes - Articles Articles
This document describes parameters included in the Penn State pond/lake water test kit to help pond owners detect common water quality problems. More
A leaking pond located in central Pennsylvania.
Fixing a Leaking Pond - Articles Articles

Fixing a Leaking Pond

Bryan Swistock

Pond leaks are a very common pond management problem in PA. This article introduces the steps for determining if a pond is leaking and tips for repairing leaks. More
Figure 1. Filamentous algae as it typically appears in July or August after forming floating mats.
Filamentous Algae - Articles Articles

Filamentous Algae

Bryan Swistock

Different species of filamentous algae exist, but all have a similar growth habit. These algae begin growth in the winter and early spring on the pond bottom. More
Facts About Aquatic Invasive Species and Water Gardens
Facts About Aquatic Invasive Species and Water Gardens - Articles Articles
A water garden is fundamentally an outdoor aquarium. The gardener needs to manage the pH, nutrients, and organisms introduced into the system. More
Eurasian Water Milfoil
Eurasian Water Milfoil - Articles Articles

Eurasian Water Milfoil

Bryan Swistock

Eurasian Milfoil is an invasive, nonnative, plant with long stems, often reaching to the surface, with feather like leaves in whorls of 4 or 5 around the stem. More
Elodea (Common Waterweed)
Elodea (Common Waterweed) - Articles Articles

Elodea (Common Waterweed)

Bryan Swistock

Elodea is one of the few pond plants that can remain green all winter long. More
Duckweed and watermeal covering a pond.
Duckweed and Watermeal - Articles Articles

Duckweed and Watermeal

Bryan Swistock

Duckweed and watermeal are free-floating aquatic plants that are commonly encountered in Pennsylvania. They are commonly found in nutrient-rich ponds with stagnant or little flow. More
Curly-Leaf Pondweed
Curly-Leaf Pondweed - Articles Articles

Curly-Leaf Pondweed

Bryan Swistock

One of more than 20 pondweed species (Potamogetons) that occur in Pennsylvania, this invasive plant from Europe frequently grows to nuisance levels in ponds. More
Coontail - Articles Articles


Bryan Swistock

Coontail is a common aquatic plant in Pennsylvania ponds and lakes. It has whorls of stiff leaves that get more compact toward the end of the stem. More
Common Causes of Fish Kills in Ponds
Common Causes of Fish Kills in Ponds - Articles Articles
Fish kills are common in many ponds. This article describes common reasons for fish kills in different seasons. More
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