Testing and Treatment

Information on private drinking and residential water testing and treatment, including how to use the Penn State drinking water test kit, use of dyes to confirm septic system failures, on-lot site evaluation and on-lot filtration.

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On-Lot Filtration and Advanced Treatment Units
On-Lot Filtration and Advanced Treatment Units - Articles Articles
There are many Filtration and Advanced treatment units (FATU's) approved for use in On-Lot Wastewater Systems in Pennsylvania. More
On-lot Wastewater Inspections During Real Estate Transactions On-lot Wastewater Inspections During Real Estate Transactions - Articles
The Pennsylvania Septage Management Association and the National Onsite Wastewater Education and Research Foundation have developed standards and procedures for on-lot wastewater system inspections. More
Aerobic Treatment Units Aerobic Treatment Units - Articles

Aerobic Treatment Units

Albert Jarrett, Ph.D.

Aerobic treatment units, also called activated sludge tanks, are a common method of biological treatment used in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. More
Vertical Flow Wetlands
Vertical Flow Wetlands - Articles Articles

Vertical Flow Wetlands

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

Vertical flow wetlands (VFW) are a relatively new tool for treating waters acidified by mining or acid deposition. More
A Primer on Water Quality Credit Trading in the Mid-Atlantic Region
A Primer on Water Quality Credit Trading in the Mid-Atlantic Region - Articles Articles
Water quality credit trading is a tool for reducing the cost of controlling nutrients and sediments that severely impact streams, rivers, lakes, and estuaries. More
A Water Drop on a Journey - Shale Gas Drilling in the Mid-Atlantic
A Water Drop on a Journey - Shale Gas Drilling in the Mid-Atlantic - Videos Videos
This video covers water’s journey through the shale gas drilling and production processes in the Mid-Atlantic region and targets the 6th–9th grade level. More
A Marcellus shale gas well pad in Pennsylvania (image credit Tom Murphy)
PA and National Academic Standards: Water and Shale Gas Videos - Articles Articles
Detail about the academic standards addressed by the water and shale gas videos available from Penn State Extension More
Are Roadside Springs Safe?
Are Roadside Springs Safe? - Videos Videos

Are Roadside Springs Safe?

Bryan Swistock, Susan Boser, Mark Madden, James Andrew Clark, Diane Oleson, M.S., Amy Galford, Gary William Micsky

Many people drink water from roadside springs in Pennsylvania. But recent research suggests that you should use caution when consuming spring water. More
Water Supply Protection, Testing, and Interpretation
Water Supply Protection, Testing, and Interpretation - Videos Videos
Learn how to test and protect your private water well, spring or cistern. More
Well, Spring, and Cistern Construction and Maintenance
Well, Spring, and Cistern Construction and Maintenance - Videos Videos
Learn how private water wells, springs and cisterns should be located, constructed and managed to ensure safe and adequate water. More
Solving Water Problems
Solving Water Problems - Videos Videos
Most drinking water issues can be resolved by considering water treatment, pollution control, or alternative water sources. More
Where Does Your Drinking Water Come From?
Where Does Your Drinking Water Come From? - Videos Videos
Educational resources on proper management of private water systems including wells, springs, and cisterns. More
Marcellus shale drilling in progress, Beaver Run Reservoir, Westmoreland County. Credit: Robert Donnan.
Water’s Journey Through the Shale Gas Processes - Articles Articles
Using publicly available information, we attempt to track and quantify current water use through the stages of the gas well development process. More
Water Well Maintenance and Rehabilitation
Water Well Maintenance and Rehabilitation - Articles Articles

Water Well Maintenance and Rehabilitation

Bryan Swistock, Dana Rizzo, M.S.

Water wells require regular maintenance to ensure adequate water flow and optimum water quality. More
Water Softening
Water Softening - Articles Articles

Water Softening

Bryan Swistock

Hard water causes gray or white deposits when water is heated. Water softening can be used to reduce these symptoms. More