Testing and Treatment

Information on private drinking and residential water testing and treatment, including how to use the Penn State drinking water test kit, use of dyes to confirm septic system failures, on-lot site evaluation and on-lot filtration.

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Water Tests: What Do the Numbers Mean?
Water Tests: What Do the Numbers Mean? - Guides and Publications Guides and Publications

Water Tests: What Do the Numbers Mean?

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D., James Andrew Clark

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Learn how and why to test water for chemicals, bacteria, and other pollutants. More
Proper Water Well Construction
Proper Water Well Construction - Articles Articles

Proper Water Well Construction

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

Sanitary water well caps and a grout seal around the casing can prevent surface water contamination of water wells. More
Coliform Bacteria
Coliform Bacteria - Articles Articles

Coliform Bacteria

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

This article describes what coliform bacteria are, where they come from and how to remove them from drinking water. More
Iron and Manganese in Private Water Systems Iron and Manganese in Private Water Systems - Articles

Iron and Manganese in Private Water Systems

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

Iron and manganese cause stains and tastes in water. They can be removed with several treatment processes described in this article. More
Shock Chlorination of Wells and Springs
Shock Chlorination of Wells and Springs - Articles Articles

Shock Chlorination of Wells and Springs

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

Shock chlorination can be used to disinfect water supplies that have been contaminated as a result of a contamination incident. More
Marcellus shale drilling in progress, Beaver Run Reservoir, Westmoreland County. Credit: Robert Donnan.
Water’s Journey Through the Shale Gas Processes - Articles Articles
Using publicly available information, we attempt to track and quantify current water use through the stages of the gas well development process. More
Lead in Drinking Water
Lead in Drinking Water - Articles Articles

Lead in Drinking Water

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D., Amy Galford

Learn how to determine if your drinking water contains too much lead, and discover ways to reduce lead in your water. More
Using Low-Yielding Wells
Using Low-Yielding Wells - Articles Articles

Using Low-Yielding Wells

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

There are several steps that can be used to increase the adequacy of a low-yielding well. More
A Primer on Water Quality Credit Trading in the Mid-Atlantic Region
A Primer on Water Quality Credit Trading in the Mid-Atlantic Region - Articles Articles
Water quality credit trading is a tool for reducing the cost of controlling nutrients and sediments that severely impact streams, rivers, lakes, and estuaries. More
Vertical Flow Wetlands
Vertical Flow Wetlands - Articles Articles

Vertical Flow Wetlands

Bryan Swistock, William Sharpe, Ph.D.

Vertical flow wetlands (VFW) are a relatively new tool for treating waters acidified by mining or acid deposition. More