Cattle feeders use feed additives like Zilmax© to increase the rate of weight gain without additional feed intake, making feed efficiency greater.
On August 7, 2013 a major player in the beef processing industry, Tyson Foods, announced they would no longer purchase cattle that had been fed Zilmax© due to animal welfare concerns. The reason Tyson gave was there were incidences of cattle suffering from stress and lameness after transportation to slaughter plants. Further, it was noted the issue was not one of food safety, but of animal welfare. With an eye on their customers and their perceptions of food quality, whether confirmed or not, Tyson took a huge step in alleviating those concerns. On August 16, 2013 Merck and Co., the makers of Zilmax©, suspended the sale of the product in the US and Canada.
The makers of Zilmax©, Merck and Co., recruited animal welfare specialist Dr. Temple Grandin to help consult with a review of the product. In an interview with Rueters on August 22, Dr. Grandin indicated there have been incidents of stiffness, soreness, and heat stress in packing plants since the use of beta-agonists began. In cases where problems were seen, Grandin said all of the cattle would be fine at the feedlot, but half of them would show some level of stress or lameness symptoms after arrival at the packing plant. While these conditions were not shown in the safety approval process for Zilmax©, such welfare incidences and actions by Tyson Foods could make the product unavailable for a considerable period of time as the evaluation process continues.
Beta-agonists are a class of non-hormonal compounds fed to cattle. Their mode of action is to bind to receptors on fat cells in the animals' body and redirect and reduce the metabolism of fat. Consequently, less fat is produced and less fat is stored in the carcass. At the same time the compounds bind to receptors on muscle cells and redirect and increase the size of muscle fibers. Muscle fiber size replaces some of the weight normally found from fat and the total carcass contains a higher percentage lean muscle. These actions reduce the energy supplied by the feed to produce weight gain. With more weight produced by the same level of feed intake feed efficiency is increased.
The products go through an extensive approval process by the Food and Drug Administration before they can be used in livestock feeds. There are two compounds available to cattle feeders: Zilmax© (zilpaterol) made by Merck and Co. and Optaflexx© (ractopamine) made by Eli Lilly Co. Both products are fed at very low levels (200 mg/head/day for Optaflexx© and 60-90 mg/head/day of Zilmax©) for a short duration just before slaughter (25-35 days). A recent report suggested 60% to 80% of feedlot cattle in the US are fed a beta-agonist (K. Micik, 2013.) The Encyclopedia of Meat Science (edited by Dikeman and Devine; 2004) reported Optaflexx© increased average daily gain by 15-25% with no additional feed intake. Slightly higher results are shown for Zilmax©. Neither product has shown any effect on meat quality at accepted feeding rates, and lean yield of the carcass was increased.
Smaller cattle feedlots seldom use beta-agonists. When pens of cattle are being sorted weekly or bi-weekly for sale, it becomes impossible to effectively use these products because of the defined feeding period prior to slaughter. In some cases, however, they may be used in pens of smaller-framed heifers or steers to increase carcass size from the additional weight gain and(or) decrease fat and improve yield grade. This serves to avoid marketing discounts for small carcasses (under 600 lbs) or YG4 or YG5 carcasses. Feeding the additive and marketing must still be done on a pen basis.
Since such a large number of cattle are fed beta-agonists, the loss of one of the products can have a significant impact on beef markets. The report from Micik (2013) quotes DTN Market Livestock Analyst John Harrington as saying a reduction of 10-15 lbs. off of all beef carcasses due to the reduction in use of beta-agonists is 0.5 billion pounds of beef, or about 1% to 1.5% of production. Typically, this result would raise the price of live cattle by $3 to $4 according to Harrington. Similarly, other features of the beef market and economic profiles for cattle feeding could be impacted. One example is more corn needed to finish cattle which raises the competition for other livestock uses.
Cattle feeders will have the option of shifting to Optaflexx© in their rations since this product is still available. However, there may still be a small reduction in weight for each carcass. Corn prices that trend lower encourage cattle feeders to feed cattle longer and increase carcass weights, and this result could offset some impact of not using beta-agonists.
Technology will drive the improvement of beef production and keeping food prices low now and in the future. Setbacks in the use of feed additives, implants, drugs, and other technology will slow that improvement. However, customers require a positive perception of the food they buy, and it is necessary to effectively answer their concerns.
Beef Column, Dr. John Comerford