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Pond coated with duckweed. Photo: Diane Oleson, Penn State Extension
Pond Scum - Duckweed and Watermeal - Articles Articles
Learn about the common "pond scum" types of duckweed and watermeal. More
Facts About Aquatic Invasive Species and Water Gardens
Facts About Aquatic Invasive Species and Water Gardens - Articles Articles
A water garden is fundamentally an outdoor aquarium. The gardener needs to manage the pH, nutrients, and organisms introduced into the system. More
Mid-Atlantic Pocket Guide to Water Garden Species
Mid-Atlantic Pocket Guide to Water Garden Species - Articles Articles
This information is intended to help select native aquatic plant alternatives and avoid invasive plant species. This guide is intended as a portable reference. More
Purple Loosestrife Infestation (Lythrum salicaria L.) Photo: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Archive, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Bugwood.org
Aquatic/Wetland Noxious Weed List - Articles Articles
The links below provide a listing of aquatic or wetland plants considered to be noxious weeds by the federal government or Pennsylvania. More
Duckweed and watermeal covering a pond.
Duckweed and Watermeal - Articles Articles

Duckweed and Watermeal

Bryan Swistock

Duckweed and watermeal are free-floating aquatic plants that are commonly encountered in Pennsylvania. They are commonly found in nutrient-rich ponds with stagnant or little flow. More
Water Quality Concerns for Ponds
Water Quality Concerns for Ponds - Articles Articles
This is a summary of some common water quality parameters that may cause problems in ponds and how to detect and treat them. More
Exposed and eroding stream banks can be restored and stabilized through the practice of live staking.
Live Staking for Stream Restoration - Articles Articles

Live Staking for Stream Restoration

Jennifer R Fetter, Kristen Kyler

A brief introduction and instructional guide to using live staking as an inexpensive and simple technique to restoring eroding stream banks. More
What is this Plant in my Pond?
What is this Plant in my Pond? - Articles Articles
Learn how to eliminate aquatic plants that have suddenly overtaken your pond, and have become a problem either aesthetically or for the pond’s recreational use. More
Planktonic algae bloom. Photo: Ed Molesky, Aqua-Link, Inc.
Pond Algae: It's Not All Bad! - Articles Articles
Late summer brings questions to Penn State Extension from pond owners about nuisance algae growth. More
Introduction to Aquaculture
Introduction to Aquaculture - Articles Articles

Introduction to Aquaculture

Thomas Ford, Lynn Kime, Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D.

The type of aquaculture operation that you begin will be influenced by your financial and labor resources as well as available markets. More
A weighted onion bag with loose barley straw.
Barley Straw for Algae Control - Articles Articles
In recent years, the use of barley straw has become more common as an alternative method for controlling excessive algae growth. More
Pond Ecology
Pond Ecology - Articles Articles

Pond Ecology

Bryan Swistock

A brief overview of the natural processes of an earthen pond and how to maintain a healthy pond. More
Coontail - Articles Articles


Bryan Swistock

Coontail is a common aquatic plant in Pennsylvania ponds and lakes. It has whorls of stiff leaves that get more compact toward the end of the stem. More
Planktonic Algae
Planktonic Algae - Articles Articles

Planktonic Algae

Bryan Swistock

Planktonic algae floats in the water column and can sometimes be confused with muddy water. It causes the water to look green, brown or reddish in color. More
Chara and Nitella - Articles Articles

Chara and Nitella

Bryan Swistock

Nitella and Chara look like rooted, aquatic plants, but both are actually a form of algae. More
Curly-Leaf Pondweed
Curly-Leaf Pondweed - Articles Articles

Curly-Leaf Pondweed

Bryan Swistock

One of more than 20 pondweed species (Potamogetons) that occur in Pennsylvania, this invasive plant from Europe frequently grows to nuisance levels in ponds. More
Naiad - Articles Articles


Bryan Swistock

One of the most common native, submerged pond plants in Pennsylvania. More
Eurasian Water Milfoil
Eurasian Water Milfoil - Articles Articles

Eurasian Water Milfoil

Bryan Swistock

Eurasian Milfoil is an invasive, nonnative, plant with long stems, often reaching to the surface, with feather like leaves in whorls of 4 or 5 around the stem. More
Elodea (Common Waterweed)
Elodea (Common Waterweed) - Articles Articles

Elodea (Common Waterweed)

Bryan Swistock

Elodea is one of the few pond plants that can remain green all winter long. More
Figure 1. Filamentous algae as it typically appears in July or August after forming floating mats.
Filamentous Algae - Articles Articles

Filamentous Algae

Bryan Swistock

Different species of filamentous algae exist, but all have a similar growth habit. These algae begin growth in the winter and early spring on the pond bottom. More