Tufted apple budmoth larva on fruit. G. Krawczyk.
Leafroller and Oriental Fruit Moth Activity in Orchards
The egg hatch models supplied by SkyBit Inc. provide theoretical estimation of insect development (i.e., egg hatch) but to accurately assess the situation in any particular orchard, only the actual moth flight observation should be used to determine "when" and "if" the treatment is needed. Properly maintained traps should provide the definitive answer about the actual pressure from various insect pests and help to choose the best management options.
These recommended products are excellent and highly effective products against targeted pests, but unfortunately they will not control our newer pest, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). Due to existing pressure from BMSB, the incorporation of effective products against stink bugs during late season applications may be warranted for many orchards, especially those located in the southern part of Pennsylvania. Although not every orchard will experience the same pressure from BMSB, we anticipate that most fruit blocks located next to woods or other possible BMSB sources (e.g., some agronomic crops) would require special protection against migrating BMSB adults and developing nymphs.
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
Commercially available BMSB traps and lures utilizing a mixture of aggregation pheromones are very helpful in early BMSB detection. The movement of summer adults from outside hosts into orchards (or other crops) and associated deposition of eggs sometimes become a significant source of BMSB infestation in orchards. Commercial BMSB lures and traps are available from Ag-Bio Inc. (Phone: 877-268-2020) and Sterling International, Inc. (Phone: 509-343-3625).
The BMSB monitoring traps should either be placed at the border of the woods surrounding orchards or under trees in the first row in orchard. Placing traps in the woods will provide information about the potential threat from BMSB, while placing traps in the orchard provide information about development of an actual problem in the block. At least a single additional trap should be placed somewhere in the middle of the orchard block to also monitor a potential pressure from BMSB populations established by adults bypassing the border of the orchard and flying deeper into the planting. For the best results the Ag-Bio pyramid traps need to be placed on the ground under the trees while the Rescue traps (small green "rocket traps") should be placed in the tree canopy making sure they are in contact with the foliage.
The commercially available BMSB lures from both sources should provide effective BMSB adult and nymph monitoring for about 4 to 5 weeks. Despite claims of possible longer lasting activity of the lures, under our summer conditions the BMSB lures need to be replaced at a monthly interval.
While the BMSB nymphal feeding can be effectively reduced by well-timed insecticide treatments (nymphs are resident pests after all), the feeding on fruit by continuously wandering BMSB adults is more difficult to manage. The BMSB adults established outside of the orchards represent a continuous challenge. With all other "traditional pests" also possibly present in the orchard, it is very important that the choice of insecticides directed against other pests would also take into consideration and possibly affect (preferably control) the portion of BMSB population present in orchards at the time of application.
It is extremely important that growers plan ahead with the choice of products utilized against BMSB, and preserve the most effective options, especially with the shortest Pre-Harvest Intervals (PHI), for applications when the pressure from this pest will increase in the later part of this season.