Toxicity of Pesticides

People who use pesticides or regularly come in contact with them must understand the relative toxicity and potential health effects of the products they use.
Toxicity of Pesticides - Articles


The toxicity of a pesticide is its capacity or ability to cause injury or illness. The toxicity of a particular pesticide is determined by subjecting test animals to varying dosages of the active ingredient (a.i.) and each of its formulated products. The active ingredient is the chemical component in the pesticide product that controls the pest. The two types of toxicity are acute and chronic.

Acute toxicity of a pesticide refers to the chemical's ability to cause injury to a person or animal from a single exposure, generally of short duration. The four routes of exposure are dermal (skin), inhalation (lungs), oral (mouth), and eyes. Acute toxicity is determined by examining the dermal toxicity, inhalation toxicity, and oral toxicity of test animals. In addition, eye and skin irritation are also examined.

Acute toxicity is measured as the amount or concentration of a toxicant-- the a.i.--required to kill 50 percent of the animals in a test population. This measure is usually expressed as LD50 (lethal dose 50) or LC50 (lethal concentration 50). Additionally, the LD50 and LC50 values are based on a single dosage and are recorded in milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg) of the test animal or in parts per million (ppm). LD50 and LC50 values are useful in comparing the toxicities of different active ingredients and different formulations containing the same active ingredient. The lower the LD50 or LC50 of a pesticide product, the greater its toxicity to humans and animals. Pesticides with a high LD50 are the least toxic to humans if used according to the directions on the product label.

The chronic toxicity of a pesticide is determined by subjecting test animals to long-term exposure to the active ingredient. Any harmful effects that occur from small doses repeated over a period of time are termed chronic effects. Some of the suspected chronic effects from exposure to certain pesticides include birth defects, production of tumors, blood disorders, and neurotoxic effects (nerve disorders). The chronic toxicity of a pesticide is more difficult to determine through laboratory analysis than acute toxicity.

Products are categorized on the basis of their relative acute toxicity (their LD50 or LC50 values). Pesticides that are classified as highly toxic (Toxicity Category I) on the basis of either oral, dermal, or inhalation toxicity must have the signal words DANGER and POISON printed in red with a skull and crossbones symbol prominently displayed on the front panel of the package label. The Spanish equivalent for DANGER, "PELIGRO," must also appear on the labels of highly toxic chemicals. The acute (single dosage) oral LD50 for pesticide products in this group ranges from a trace amount to 50 mg/kg. For example, exposure of a few drops of a material taken orally could be fatal to a 150-pound person.

Some pesticide products have the signal word DANGER without the skull and crossbones symbol. This is because possible skin and eye effects are more severe than suggested by the acute toxicity (LD50) of the product.

Pesticide products considered moderately toxic (Toxicity Category II) must have the signal word WARNING and "AVISO" (the Spanish equivalent) displayed on the product label. In this category, the acute oral LD50 ranges from 50 to 500 mg/kg. A teaspoon to an ounce of this material could be fatal to a 150-pound person.

Pesticide products classified as either slightly toxic or relatively nontoxic (Toxicity Categories III and IV) are required to have the signal word CAUTION on the pesticide label. Acute oral LD50 values in this group are greater than 500 mg/kg. An ounce or more of this material could be fatal to a 150-pound person.

Despite the fact that some pesticide products are considered only slightly toxic or relatively nontoxic, all pesticides can be hazardous to humans, animals, other organisms, and the environment if the instructions on the product label are not followed. Use the pesticide only as recommended by the manufacturer. As the applicator, you are legally responsible for any misuse of a pesticide.

Table 1 summarizes the LD50 and LC50 values for each route of exposure for the four toxicity categories and their associated signal word. For example, an active ingredient with a dermal LD50 of 1,000 mg/kg would be in Toxicity Category II with a WARNING signal word. Keep in mind, an active ingredient may have a high LD50 placing it in a Toxicity Category II, III, or IV but also have corrosive eye/skin effects that take priority and place it in Toxicity Category I.

Although every pesticide is different and the product label should be consulted to determine the personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements for each chemical, some general rules apply for choosing PPE according to the different toxicity categories (Table 2).

Table 1. Toxicity Categories for Active Ingredients

Routes of ExposureToxicity Cat. IToxicity Cat. IIToxicity Cat. IIIToxicity Cat. IV
Oral LD50Up to and including 50 mg/kg50-500 mg/kg500-5,000 mg/kg>5,000 mg/kg
Inhalation LC50Up to and including 0.2 mg/l0.2-2 mg/l2-20 mg/l>20 mg/l
Dermal LD50Up to and including 200 mg/kg200-2,000 mg/kg2,000-20,000 mg/kg>20,000 mg/kg
Eye EffectsCorrosive corneal opacity not reversible within 7 daysCorneal opacity reversible within 7 days; irritation persisting for 7 daysNo corneal opacity; irritation reversible within 7 daysNo irritation
Skin EffectsCorrosiveSevere irritation at 72 hoursModerate irritation at 72 hoursMild or slight irritation at 72 hours
Signal WordDANGER

Adapted from 40 CFR Part 156.

Table 2. Minimum PPE and Work Clothing for Pesticide-Handling Activities

Route of ExposureToxicity Cat. IToxicity Cat. IIToxicity Cat. IIIToxicity Cat. IV
Dermal toxicity or skin irritation potentialCoveralls worn over long-sleeved shirt and long pants

Chemical-resistant footwear
Chemical-resistant gloves
Coveralls worn over short-sleeved shirt and short pants
Chemical-resistant footwear
Chemical-resistant gloves
long-sleeved shirt and long pants

Chemical-resistant footwear
no minimum
long-sleeved shirt and long pants

Chemical-resistant footwear
no minimum
Inhalation toxicityRespiratory protection deviceRespiratory protection deviceno minimumno minimum
Eye irritation potentialProtective eyewearProtective eyewearno minimumno minimum

The acute oral and dermal LD50 values of commonly used pesticides are listed in the following tables and include acaricides, bactericides, fungicides, herbicides, insect growth regulators, insecticides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators. The common chemical name of the active ingredient followed by an example of a trade name is listed in the first column. Use categories (general or restricted) are indicated in the second column. The acute oral LD50 and acute dermal LD50 are in the third and fourth columns. The fifth column indicates the restricted-entry interval (REI). The REI is the time immediately after a pesticide application when entry into the treated area is limited.

Information presented here is for preliminary planning only. Exclusive reliance must be placed on the product label supplied by the manufacturer. All pesticide toxicity values, including the LD50, can be found on the product's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Pesticide labels and MSDS can be obtained from retailers or manufactures. In addition, most products also have information that can be found on the Internet.

Poison Control Centers 1-800-222-1222 Calling the toll-free National Poison Center hotline above will connect you to the nearest poison center. Pennsylvania residents are served by the Pittsburgh Poison Center and the Poison Control Center in Philadelphia.

Table 3. Acaricide1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
dicofol, Kelthane, Kelthane MFG570-595>2,00012
disulfton, Di-systonG2-123.6-15.948
endosulfan, PhaserG16035924
etoxazole, SecureG>5,000>2,00012
fenbutatin-oxide, VendexR2,631>2,00048
formetanate hydrochloride, CarzolG21>10,20048, 72
hexythiazox, SaveyG>5,000>5,00012
pyridaben, SanmiteG820-1,350>2,00012
sulfurG>5,000>5,00012, 24, 48
tetradifon, TedionG>10,000>10,00012

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 4. Bactericide1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
acibenzolar-S-methyl, ActigardG>5,000>2,00012
dimanin A, BaycleanG290----
hydrogen dioxide, Terra CleanG3301,4100
oxytetracycline, MycoshieldG>5,000>2,00012
pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Blight BanG----4
streptomycin, Agri-Mycin-17, Agri-StrepG9,000--12

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 5. Fungicide1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
acibenzolar-S-methyl, ActigardG>5,000>2,00012
azoxystrobin, Abound, QuadrisG>2,000>5,0004
Bacillus subtilis, SerenadeG>5,000>2,00012
boscalid, EnduraG>2,000>2,00012
carboxin, VitavaxG3,820>4,00024
chlorine, Clorox (bleach)G----12
chloropicrin, Chloro-o-PicR-3, 10250--72
chlorothalonil*, BravoG>10,000>10,00024
Coniothyrium minitans, ContansG----4
copper, fixed8G----12, 24
copper hydroxide, Spin OutG1,000--24
cymoxanil, CurzateG1,100>3,00012
dichloropropene, TeloneR127423120
dicloran, BotranGtech 5,000--12
difenoconazole, DividendG1,4532,01048
dimethomorph, AcrobatG3,900>2,00024
dodine, SyllitG1,000>6,00048
etridiazole, TerrazoleR,G1,077>2,00012
famoxodone, FamoxateG>5,000>5,00012
fenbuconazole, Enable, IndarR,G>2,000>5,00012
fenhexamid, ElevateG>5,000>5,0004
fluazinam, OmegaG>5,000>2,00048
fludioxonil, MaximG>5,000>2,00012
flutolanil, FolistarG10,000>5,00012
fosetyl Al, AlietteG5,000>2,00012, 24
harpin protein, MessengerG>5,000>6,0004
iprodione*, RovralG>4,400>2,00012, 24
kresoxim-methyl, SovranG5,000>2,00012
mancozeb, Dithane, ManzateG>5,000>5,00024
maneb, ManexGtech 7,990>5,00024
metalaxyl, Apron, RidomilGtech 669>3,10012
metalaxyl-M, Ridomil GoldG>5,000>2,00048
metam potassium, K-PamG630>1,00048
methyl bromide*, MC-2, Terr-O-Gas 67R-8see footnote 748
metiram, PolyramGtech >6,810>2,00012
myclobutanil, NovaG1,600>5,00024
PCNB, TerraclorGtech 1,700-5,0002,000-4,00012, 24
propamocarb hydrochloride, PrevicarG2,900>3,00012
propiconazole*, Tilt, OrbitG1,517>4,00024
pyraclostrobin, Cabrio, HeadlineG>500>4,00012
sodium chlorite, AlcideG----12
streptomycetes, SoilGardG----12
sulfurG>5,000>5,00012, 24, 48
tebuconazole, HorizonG4,0005,00012
thiabendazole*, MertectG3,100--12
thiophanate-methyl, Topsin MG7,500--12
thiram, ThylateGtech 1,000>5,00012
triadimefon, BayletonG812>2,00012
trifloxystrobin, Gem, FlintG>5,000>2,00012
triflumizole, ProcureG2,230>2,00012
triphenyltin hydroxide, Super TinR-7156-3451,60048
vinclozolin, RonilanGtech 10,000--12
zoxamide, GavelG>5,000>5,00048

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 6 Herbicide1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
acetochlor, DegreeR2,1484,16612
acifluorfen, BlazerG2,025>2,00048
alachlor, Lasso, PartnerR-12tech 930-1,35013,30012
ametryn, EvikG1,950--12
asulam, AsuloxG>5,000>2,00012
atrazine, AAtrexR1,869>3,10012
bensulide, PrefarGtech 271-1,470--12
bentazon, BasagranG2,063>6,05012
bromoxynil, Brominal, BuctrilGtech 260>2,00012
butylate, Sutan +G4,500>4,6402
carfentrazone-ethyl, AimG5,143>4,00012
CDAA, RandoxG750--12
chlorimuron ethyl, ClassicG>4,000>2,00012
chlorpropham, Chloro IPC, Sprout NipG3,800--48
clethodim, SelectG3,610>5,00012, 24
clomazone, CommandG1,369>2,00012
clopyralid, StingerG>5,000>2,00012
cycloate*, Ro-NeetG3,160-4,640--12
dalapon*, Dowpon MG9,330--24
DCPA*, DacthalG>10,000>2,00024
desmedipham, BetanexG>3,960>10,00024
dicamba, Banvel, ClarityG2,629>2,00012, 24
dimethenamid, Frontier, OutlookG849>2,00012
diquat dibromide, RewardG600260--
diuron, KarmexGtech >5,000>5,00012
endothall, Desicate IIR23348148
EPTC, EradicaneGtech 1,630--12
ethalfluralin, Curbit 3EG>10,000>10,00012
fenoxaprop-ethyl, AcclaimG2,565>2,00024
fluazifop-P-butyl*, Fusilade DXG3,328--12
flumetsulam, PythonG>5,000>2,00012
flumiclorac-pentyl, ResourceG3,200>2,00012
fomesafen, ReflexG1,858--24
foramsulfuron, OptionG>3,881>5,00012
glufosinate-ammonium, LibertyG1,6204,00012
glyphosate, Roundup, TouchdownG>5,000>5,00024
halosulfuron-methyl, Manage, PermitG1,287>5,00012
hexazinone, VelparG1,6905,27824
imazamox, RaptorG>5,000>4,00024
imazaquin, ScepterG>5,000>5,00012
imazethapyr, PursuitG>5,000>2,00012, 24
lactofen, CobraG>5,000>2,00012
linuron, Linex, LoroxGtech 4,000--24
MCPA, U 46 M-FluidG900-1,160>4,00012, 24, 48
mesotrione, CallistoG>5,000>2,00012
S-metolachlor, Dual MagnumGtech 2,78010,00012
metribuzin, Sencor, LexoneR-14tech 1,100-2,300>20,00012
metsulfuron-methyl, AllyG>5,000>2,0004
napropamide, DevrinolG>4,640--12
naptalam, Alanap LG1,770--24
nicosulfuron, AccentG>5.000>2,0004
norflurazon, SolicamG>8,000>20,00012
oryzalin, SurflanG>10,000--12
oxyfluorfen, GoalGtech >5,000>10,00024
paraquat, Gramoxone MaxR-1,8150--12, 48
pebulate, TillamGtech 921-1,900>4,64012
pendimethalin, ProwlG1,250>5,00012, 24
phenmedipham*, Spin-aidG>8,000>4,00024
picloram, TordonR8,200>5,00012
primisulfuron-methyl, BeaconG>5,050>2,01012
pronamide, KerbR-5tech 8,3505,62012
propachlor, RamrodG500-1,700>20,00048
propanil, StampedeG>2,500>5,00024
prosulfuron, PeakG4,3602,02012
quizalofop-P-ethel, Assure IIG1,210--12
rimsulfuron, ShadeoutG>5,000>2,0004
sethoxydim, PoastG2,676-3,125>5,00012, 24
simazine, PrincepG>5,000>3,10012
sulfentrazone, AuthorityG2,855>2.00012
terbacil*, SinbarG5,000-7,500--12
thifensulfuron-methyl, Harmony GTG>5,000>2.0004
triasulfuron, AmberG>5,050>2.0004
triclopyr, Garlon, RemedyGtech 630>2.00048
trifluralin, Treflan, TrilinG>10,000--12, 24
2,4-D (acid)R(NJ),G375--12, 24
2,4-DB, ButyracG>2,000>10,00048

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 7. Insect Growth Regulator1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
azadirachtin, Aza-DirectG>5,000>2,00012
cyromazine, TrigardR,G3,387>3,10012
fenoxycarb, ComplyG16,800>2,000--
hydroprene, GenTrolG>34,0005,100--
S-kinoprene, Enstar IIG4,9009,0004
S-methoprene, PrecorG>34,000>2,000--
pyriproxyfen, Esteem, KnackG>5,000>2,00012

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 8. Insecticides1,2

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
abamectin, Agri-Mek (FB)R300>1,80012
acephate, Address, Lancer (OP)Gtech 980>10,25024
acetamiprid, AssailG1,064>2,00012
aldicarb*, Temik (CA)R5>2,00048
azadirachtin, NeemixG>5,000>2,00012
azinphos-methyl, Guthion (OP)R-1,2,3,8,10,12tech 5-2022048
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai, XenTari (BT)GSee footnote 64
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawa + kurstaki, Agree (BT)GSee footnote 64
Bacillus thuringiensis encapsulated delta endotoxin, Mattch (BT)GSee footnote 64
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, Crymax (BT)GSee footnote 64
Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis, Novodor (BT)GSee footnote 64
bifenthrin, Brigade, Empower (PY)R262>2,00024
bifenazate, AcramiteG>5,000>2,00012
carbaryl*, Sevin (CA)G50085012
carbofuran, Furadan (CA)R-38>3,00048
chlorethoxyfos, Fortress (PY)Rtech 1.8-4.812.5-18.548
chlorpyrifos*, Lorsban (OP)R92-2762,00012, 24
cryolite, Kryocide, Prokil (IO)G>5,000--12
cyfluthrin, Baythroid (PY)R500>5,00012
cyhalothrin-lambda, Karate (PY)R-127963224
cypermethrin, Ammo (PY)R2502,00012
deltamethrin, PounceR-12431>2,00012
diazinon (OP)R-11tech 300-4003,60012, 48
dicofol, Kelthane (CH)G5702,00012
diflubenzuron, DimilinR4,640>10,00012
dimethoate*, Cygon (OP)R(NJ),Gtech 235>40048
disulfoton, Di-Syston (OP)R-2,3tech 41048
emamectin, Proclaim (FB)R1,516>2,00048
endosulfan, Thiodan, Phaser (CH)R(NJ),Gtech 16048
esfenvalerate, Asana XL (PY)R-12468>2,00012
ethoprop, Mocap (OP)R61248
fenamiphos, Nemacur (OP)R-1,1010>2,00048
fenproparthrin, Danitol (PY)R66>2,00024
fipronil, RegentR3363820
imidacloprid, Admire, Gaucho (NN)Gtech 450>5,00012
indoxacarb, Avaunt (CA)G268>5,00012
insecticidal soap, M-Pede (SO)G16,900--12
lindane (CH)R-588-1251,00012, 24
malathion, Cythion (OP)Gtech 5,500>2,00012
metaldehyde, Deadline (OT)G630--12, 24
methamidophos, Monitor (OP)R-2,11tech 2013048
methomyl, Lannate (CA)R-8,10175,88048
methoxychlor (CH)G6,000--12
methoxyfenozide, IntrepidG>5,000>5,0004
methyl parathion*, Metacide (OP)R-2,8,10,1165048
oxamyl, Vydate L (CA)R372,96048
oxydemeton-methyl*, Metasystox-R (OP)Rtech 5015048
PBO (piperonyl butoxide), Incite (OT)G>7,500--12
permethrin, Ambush, Pounce (PY)R-12tech >4,000>4,00024
phorate*, Thimet (OP)R-2,10,11tech 2-420-3048
phosmet, Imidan (OP)R(NJ),Gtech 147-316>4,64024
pymetrozine, Fulfill (OT)G>5,000>2,00012
pyrethrins, Pyganic (BO)G1,500>1,80012
pyrethrum (BO)G1,500>1,80012
rotenone*, Rotenox, Noxfire (BO)G132-1,500--12, 24, 48
spinosad, SpinTor, Entrust (ML)G>5,000>2,0004
sulfur (IO)G>5,000>5,00012, 24, 48
tebufenozide, Confirm (PY)G>5,000>5,0004
tefluthrin, Force (PY)R1,213>2,0000
terbufos, Counter (OP)R-1,2tech 4.51.148
tetramethrin, AmmoR-12>5,000>2,00012
thiamethoxam, Actara, Platinum (NN)G>5,000>2,00012
thiodicarb, Larvin (CA)G66>2,00012
zeta-cypermethrin, Mustang (PY)R-10,12234>2,00012

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 9 Nematicide1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
DCP, dichloropropeneR(NJ),G30033372
ethoprop, MocapR-261.52.448
fenamiphos, NemacurR-2tech 320048
metam-sodium, Vapam HLG1,891>3,07448
methyl bromide*, MC-2, Terr-O-Gas 67R-8see footnote 748
oxamyl, Vydate LR372,96048

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Table 10. Plant Growth Regulator1

Active Ingredient, Trade nameUse Category3LD50 - OralLD50 - DermalREI5 (hours)
BAP, ExilisG3,980--4
chlormequat chloride, Cycocel-ExtraG883>4,00012
daminozide, B-NineG>5,000>5,00024
dikegulac sodium, AtrimmecG31,000>1,000--
ethephon, EthrelG4,229--48
flurprimidol, CutlessG709----
gibberellic acid, GibGro, ProGibbG1,000-25,000--4
lactic acid, PropelG3,543>2,00048
maleic hydrazide, Royal MH-30RG>5,000>5,00012
mepiquat chloride, PixG--12
naphthaleneacetamide, Thin-itG1,6902,00048
l-naphthaleneacetic acid, FruiteG2,520--48
paclobutrazol, BonziG5,346>1,00012
Plant Extract 620, AgrisponG>20,000----
prohexadione-calcium, ApogeeG>5,000>2,00012
Trinexapac ethyl, PrimoMaxxG>5,0502,0200
uniconazole-P, SumagicG2,020>2,00012

LD50 values are (mg/kg)4

Footnotes to Tables

-- = Data not available

* = Material covered under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) for storage notification.

1The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) now requires growers to keep on file Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for certain chemicals used during normal spray programs. These MSDS should be obtained from either your local pesticide dealer or directly from the chemical manufacturer. Some labels carry technical assistance phone numbers that you can call for further information. Call this number to request a MSDS from the manufacturer.

2Type class: BO = botanical, BT = bacterial, CA = carbamate, CH = chlorinated hydrocarbon, FB = fermentation by-product, IO = inorganic, ML = macrocyclic lactone, NN = neonicotinoid, OP = organic phosphate, OT = other, PY = pyrethroid, and SO = soap

3Use category: R = restricted use and G = general use. Chemicals are designated as general or restricted use by state or federal agencies. Restricted use may not apply to all formulations or all uses of a formulation. Check the label to be sure. The designation "NJ" refers to a compound that is classified as restricted use in New Jersey. The number(s) after the R designation refer to the following reasons for being classified as a federal restricted use product:

  1. acute oral toxicity
  2. acute dermal toxicity
  3. acute inhalation toxicity
  4. corrosive to eyes
  5. potential to cause tumors
  6. potential to cause genetic mutations
  7. potential to cause adverse reproductive effects
  8. accident history
  9. exposure hazard to workers
  10. potential effects on wildlife
  11. potential effects on birds
  12. potential effects on fish and/or other aquatic species
  13. potential for groundwater contamination
  14. lack of data

4LD50 = milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight of the test animal. The symbol > indicates the value is greater than the number listed. Formulations: LD50 values given are for formulated material as you would purchase it; for example, 50WP, 4E, etc., unless otherwise noted. Source: 2001 Farm Chemicals Handbook; information is listed as supplied by manufacturer.

5REI (Restricted-entry interval): The EPA Worker Protection Standard now requires minimum 12-hour reentry times for all Category III (CAUTION) pesticides, 24-hour minimum reentry times for all Category II (WARNING) pesticides, and 48-hour minimum reentry times for all Category I (DANGER) pesticides. In New Jersey, the NJDEP Pesticide Control Program has designated 48-hour reentry times for some pesticides which EPA has assigned 12- or 24-hour reentry times. Chemicals with multiple designations are based on product and/or formulation differences.

6Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis is listed as harmless to humans, animals, and useful insects. Bacillus thuringiensis is listed under several commercially available trade names such as Agree, Biobit, Cutlass, Crymax, DiPel, Javelin, Ketch, Lepinox, Mattch, Novodor, Prolong, Raven, and XenTari. Bacillus thuringiensis materials are marketed as several different subspecies such as aizawai, kurstaki, and tenebrionis. Different Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies may have different insect control properties. Please check labels for pest insects controlled before use.

7Acute vapor toxicity, 200 ppm, extremely hazardous by vapor inhalation. Liquid can cause eye and skin burns.