Forests are important to Pennsylvanians. We all want to ensure that the beauty, diversity, extent, and productivity of Penn's Woods are maintained for many generations to come. The state legislature recognizes that well-planned and executed timber harvesting is essential to achieving this goal. As a part of its 2000 Smart Growth package of amendments (Acts 67 and 68) to the state Municipalities Planning Code (MPC), the Pennsylvania General Assembly amended Section 603 [Zoning](f) to state: "Zoning ordinances may not unreasonably restrict forestry activities. To encourage maintenance and management of forested or wooded open space and promote the conduct of forestry as a sound and economically viable use of forested land throughout this Commonwealth, forestry activities, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, shall be a permitted use by right in all zoning districts in every municipality." In Section 107 [Definitions] of the MPC, the legislature defines "Forestry" as "the management of forests and timberlands when practiced in accordance with accepted silvicultural principles, through developing, cultivating, harvesting, transporting, and selling trees for commercial purposes, which does not involve any land development." Through this statutory language, the legislature calls on all municipalities to view the management of the forest base, like the maintenance of a family farm, as a sound and preferred use of the land, and to encourage its continued presence in the community.
The purpose of this guide is to give community leaders a better understanding of forestry and timber harvesting, and to help them make administrative decisions that reflect forestry's important, ongoing role in sustaining open space throughout the state. The guide also identifies sources of additional information and assistance.
Economic Importance of Forest Products to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's forest products industry is vital to the state's economy and to the livelihood of many of its residents.
- Pennsylvania is the nation's largest producer of hardwood lumber, producing over 1 billion board feet per year.
- Annual economic contribution of forest products exceeds $5 billion.
- The industry provides more than 90,000 jobs (10 percent of Pennsylvania's manufacturing workforce) in 2,600 companies.
- The total industry payroll exceeds $2 billion per year.
- Payments to private landowners for timber sales exceed $350 million yearly.
- Pennsylvania's 500,000 private landowners own 75 percent (12.5 million acres) of the state's forestland and supply 80 percent of its timber products.
Benefits of Forestry
Timber management encourages the preservation of open space
The report of the Pennsylvania Twenty-First Century Environment Commission recommends that farms and forests remain among "preferred open space uses of the land," and that these land uses be "sustained, profitable, and environmentally sound." Since forests provide landowners with income from standing timber, timber harvesting is an incentive for them to maintain woodland on their property. Eliminating or significantly limiting this potential source of income makes alternatives such as commercial and residential development more attractive.
Timber management provides tax benefits to local governments
According to a study conducted by the American Farmland Trust, timberland and farmland yield an average of $3 in taxes for every $1 in required governmental services, while residential land costs $1.11 in services for every $1 collected in tax revenues.
Timber harvesting increases habitat diversity and provides other wildlife benefits
Many animal species, such as the golden-winged warbler, bluebird, hare, deer, and ruffed grouse, benefit from younger forests and the temporary openings created by timber harvesting. However, as a result of logging practices in the early part of this century, most of Pennsylvania's forests consist of mature trees that are all approxi- mately the same age. Little of the forest is made up of younger trees such as seedlings or saplings. This imbalance in the proportion of younger trees causes an imbalance in wildlife and plant habitats. Timber harvesting increases the proportion of younger trees, which in turn allows for greater habitat diversity and a greater variety of plants and animals in forest areas.
Timber harvesting increases the variety of food sources, making wildlife less dependent on a single source. In addition, slash created from limbs and tops of harvested trees provides small mammals and birds with winter shelter and protection from predators.
Timber management may result in improved recreational opportunities
Trails and roads created during timber harvesting can then be used for hiking and cross-country skiing after harvesting is complete. Also, vistas can be created, adding to the visual enjoyment of the forest.
Basic Forest Management Principles
Forests change constantly
Because changes in a forest take place very slowly, sometimes over periods of hundreds of years, people often view forests as static. But forests are actually dynamic communities of plants and animals. Undisturbed forests go through a predictable series of changes in species composition and physical structure over time. These relatively slow changes continue until a major disturbance such as a fire, windstorm, or insect outbreak starts the growth cycle over again.
Prior to European settlement, the length of time between major disturbances in most Pennsylvania forests was probably about 300 years. However, much of today's forest did not exist 60 to 90 years ago. Large-scale industrial logging, subsequent wide- spread fires, and the devastating chestnut blight had eliminated nearly all of Pennsylvania's old-growth forest by 1930. Huge areas of the Commonwealth were entirely deforested, and the magnificent forests we enjoy today literally rose from the ashes naturally with the advent of effective forest fire prevention and control programs.
Even without further disturbance, Pennsylvania's forests will change substantially over time (see figures 1-6). The valuable black cherry trees on the Allegheny Plateau, for example, will give way to more shade-tolerant species, such as sugar maple and beech, and the proportion of oaks in the Ridge and Valley Region will decline in relation to red maple. Natural disturbances, such as the 1985 Memorial Day tornadoes (see figures 7-8) or insects and diseases, may accelerate or slow down these changes.
Timber harvesting mimics the natural disturbances that sustain forests
Foresters and loggers work with, not against, the processes of natural change by harvesting wood that would otherwise be lost to natural mortality, and by promoting the kinds of trees that best meet landowners' objectives. The patterns of natural change in forests result from variations in shade tolerance among different kinds of trees. Some species, such as black cherry and yellow poplar, require full sun to become established and to grow. These are known as shade-intolerant species. More tolerant species, such as sugar maple and hemlock, can become established and grow well in shaded areas, but they are soon surpassed by faster-growing intolerant species in sunnier locations. A third group, including northern red oak and eastern white pine, can tolerate moderate amounts of shade.
The techniques, or silvicultural systems, foresters use to harvest and regenerate trees generally manipulate the relative amounts of sun and shade to promote selected species. Intolerant species benefit from cutting practices hat are more like the large-scale natural disturbances caused by fire, wind, or insect epidemics, while tolerant species benefit from smaller disturbances, similar to those caused by the death of an individual tree or a small group of trees. In Pennsylvania, some of the most important economic assets of forests are produced by species that are intolerant of shade.
Both clear-cutting and selection cutting are acceptable silvicultural practices for managing Pennsylvania's forests
Clear-cutting, in which an entire timber stand is cut, is one of the silvicultural systems used by foresters to regenerate, or renew, forests. Like large-scale natural disturbances, clearcutting promotes the establishment and growth of intolerant and intermediate species, such as black cherry and oak. It is used when landowners have a reason to harvest the existing trees, and when the seedlings that will become the future forest are already present or the area is to be replanted. Reasons to harvest might include the financial maturity of most of the trees or a desire to create temporary open habitat for certain wildlife species.
Clear-cutting is appropriate for Pennsylvania's two major forest types, northern hardwood and oak/ hickory. It creates a new forest with trees of roughly the same age, or an even-aged forest. Another way to promote the establishment of seedlings is with a technique called shelterwood, which temporarily retains 30 to 70 percent of the forest canopy. Without clear-cutting or other even-aged management and harvesting techniques, the proportion of black cherry and oak in Pennsylvania forests will be reduced in the future.
Selection cutting, a regeneration technique in which trees are removed singly or in small groups, is appropriate for forests comprised of trees of different ages, or uneven-aged forests. Properly applied, selection cutting will remove not only some larger, higher-quality trees, but also many smaller, lower-quality ones. This will increase the growing space for the remaining trees and create areas where new seedlings can become established. The intent is to retain a full range of trees, from large old trees to seedlings. This process is designed to control species composition, age structure, and tree quality. Since the forest canopy remains largely intact, selection cutting is best used on shade-tolerant species, such as sugar maple, beech, and hemlock.
Diameter-limit cutting generally is a destructive practice
It is well known that high-grading (also referred to as "selective cutting"), or taking only the largest, best trees of the most valuable species, leads to a progressive deterioration of forest variety and quality. However, many people do not realize that diameter-limit cutting can be almost as destructive. When all trees above a certain diameter (measured at 4.5 feet above the ground) are removed, the smaller, slower-growing specimens are left. In Pennsylvanian even-aged forests, small trees are usually about the same age as large ones. However, these small trees may be (1) a different species; (2) genetically inferior; or (3) in a poor location. Diameter-limit cutting shifts the composition of the forest toward slower-growing, less valuable shade-tolerant species, and it may degrade the quality of the forest by promoting inferior trees. It may also limit future options for the forest and slow down recovery from disturbance by eliminating the sources of seed for the species removed.
Tree planting (artificial regeneration) generally is not necessary in Pennsylvania
Through the use of acceptable silvicultural practices, most of Pennsylvania's forests will regenerate naturally from seeds or sprouts. Studies show that naturally regenerated trees usually grow faster and survive better than planted trees. However, trees may have to be planted to reforest former strip mine sites, old fields, conifer plantations, and areas where insects or diseases have killed all the seed-producing trees.
The visual impacts of timber harvesting are temporary and infrequent
The visual evidence of logging is nearly invisible to the casual observer after 3 to 5 years, as slash rots and new tree seedlings and other vegetation renew disturbed areas. After a harvest, loggers are unlikely to revisit the area for another 15 years or more.
The visual impacts of timber harvesting can be reduced by good planning
Foresters have developed effective management guidelines to minimize unsightly effects of logging. For example, logging roads and landings can be screened by topography and vegetation. Landowners can retain selected large trees to provide fall color and interesting patterns. Other techniques that can make logging sites more attractive include cutting stumps close to the ground, minimizing debris by using as much of each tree as possible, and trimming or lopping the unused tops of trees in visually sensitive areas so that they lie close to the ground.
Forestry is not land development
Few landowners harvest timber in preparation for land development. History shows that landowners who have the relative freedom to harvest their woodlots for economic gain have an incentive to leave the forest in an undeveloped condition. Conversely, forest landowners who become subject to unreasonable levels of regulation, often to the point of making active management of their forests uneconomical, often convert their land to development uses. As with farmers, forest landowners should be encouraged by their communities to keep their lands in a perpetually forested condition. Municipal land-use regulation should be reasonable, making allowances for harvesting while providing for the continuation of the natural resource.
According to U.S. Forest Service inventories, forest areas are actually increasing in Pennsylvania. Forest area throughout the Commonwealth is currently at its highest level since the late nineteenth century. In the heavily populated Southeast, forestland increased more than 6 percent between 1978 and 1989. Likewise, it increased 4.5 percent in the Northeast and 3 percent in the West. Even in the Poconos, an area of rapid population growth, total forestland increased 1 percent. Today, about 60 percent of Pennsylvania is forested.
Timber harvesting generally has little adverse effect on water quality and does not cause flooding
Forest soils are very absorbent. They act as living filters and reduce surface runoff much more than other surfaces such as grass, cultivated fields, or parking lots. Logging normally disturbs less than 10 percent of the forest soil in the harvest area and therefore does not change forest soil characteristics. In fact, the Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) water quality assessment of over 35,000 miles of rivers and streams found only 3 miles impaired as a result of silvicultural activities. (Silviculture ranked last among 32 land-use activities identified in the study as having an impact on water quality.) Also, forest management in Pennsylvania does not rely heavily on herbicides or fertilizers. Disturbed soils are a concern, but by law, a plan must be developed to address potential problems before a proposed timber harvest can commence. (See the section on state regulation below.)
Timber harvesting affects only a small portion of Pennsylvania forests each year
In spite of substantial increases in timber harvesting in recent years, a 1989 inventory of Pennsylvania forests showed that forest areas were increasing in volume twice as fast as they were being cut or lost to natural mortality. Overall, the annual Pennsylvania timber harvest is less than 1 percent of the current standing-timber volume.
State Regulation of Timber Harvesting
Several aspects of timber harvesting are regulated extensively under state law. If local governments or citizens have concerns about regulated activities, the most cost-effective way to deal with them is to work with the appropriate state officials or their local agents. (The Appendix contains suggestions on whom to contact for help on various issues.) The following is a summary of the primary state regulations affecting timber harvesting in Pennsylvania.
All timber harvesting operations in Pennsylvania must have a plan to control erosion and sedimentation
Operations that disturb 25 or more acres of land require an erosion and sedimentation control permit; however, timber operations seldom need permits as they disturb very little land. While timber harvesting generally does not have a major impact on soil or water resources, the construction of access roads, log landings, and skid trails can cause temporary soil disturbance in the harvested area. As a result, state regulations (25 Pa. Code, Chapter 102) require that all earth disturbances have a site-specific erosion and sediment control plan. The plan must (1) be designed to minimize erosion and sediment pollution associated with timber harvesting; (2) be prepared by a person trained and experienced in erosion and sedimentation control methods; (3) consider such factors as topographic features, soils, and quantity of runoff; and (4) be available at the harvest site. DEP regional offices are responsible for enforcing the regulation. The program is also delegated to the County Conservation Districts (CCDs). Since the state-mandated requirements are already thorough and rigorous, communities are discouraged from adding regulatory standards that exceed the scope of existing state regulations in their local ordinances.
Stream crossings may require permits
Timber harvesting frequently requires that access roads and skid trails be constructed across streams. To minimize any impact on water flows or quality, stream crossings are allowed only under certain circumstances. State regulations (25 Pa. Code, Chapter 105) require permits for all types of crossings, including culverts, bridges, and fords, that drain more than 100 acres or require wetland fills. Permit applications must be accompanied by an erosion and sediment control plan approved by the local County Conservation District. DEP regional offices and CCDs are responsible for enforcement of Chapter 105 regulations. The DEP also issues general stream-crossing permits to the CCDs, which should be directly consulted for stream-crossing options.
All crossings of wetlands by logging access roads and skid trails require permits under both state and federal law
Wetlands are regulated jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the state Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). A goal of Chapter 105 is to protect water quality, the natural hydrologic regime, and the carrying capacity of watercourses, including wetlands. Although tree harvesting is allowed in wetland areas in most cases, Chapter 105 prohibits the "encroachment" (for example, a road crossing) of any wetland without a permit from the DEP. The permit application must be accompanied by the erosion and sediment control plan described above and a letter from the local CCD stating that it has reviewed the plan and found it to be satisfactory. The DEP and the Corps have a consolidated joint permit application process. The permit issued by the DEP will usually satisfy federal application requirements, utilizing a Federal State Programmatic General Permit (PASPGP); in special cases, the Corps issues a separate permit. Enforcement of Chapter 105, as it relates to watercourses such as wetlands, is the responsibility of the DEP regional offices.
Fish habitat must be maintained
Chapter 25 of the Fish and Boat Code (30 Pa. C.S.A. §§2051-2506) prohibits any alteration or disturbance of streams, fish habitat, or watershed that in any way may dam- age or destroy habitat without the necessary permits from the DEP, including those required under 25 Pa. Code Chapters 102 and 105. The Fish and Boat Code also states that no substance harmful to fish life may be allowed to run, wash, or flow into the waters of the Commonwealth. Enforcement of the code is the responsibility of the Fish and Boat Commission's waterways conservation officers.
Dealing with Potential Damage to Local Roads
The potential impact of logging truck traffic on local roads concerns many officials. Some of the roads and bridges in forest areas may not be designed to support heavy loads, and the prospect of costly repairs has prompted some local governments to enact road- bonding ordinances. In addition, the Pennsylvania legislature has mandated legal standards for all overweight hauling in Title 75PCS, Chapter 49. Under this system, local road posting and bonding must comply with state procedures and standards required by law as specified in Road Bonding Regulations: Hauling in Excess of Posted Weight Limit on Highways (67 Pa. Code, Chapter 189). Information about these laws and regulations can be found in PennDot publication 221: Posting and Bonding Procedures for Municipal Highways, which may be obtained from the Local Technical Assistance Program. (See the Appendix for the address and telephone number.) The section below describes some of the key procedures and standards for posting and bonding of roads and for bridges located on posted roads. Similar requirements apply to bridges posted independently of roads.
A road must be posted with a weight limit before a bond can be required of a hauler. The steps taken to establish a weight limit include (1) completing an engineering and traffic study that supports the need for a weight restriction; (2) passing an ordinance identifying the road segment and setting the weight restriction; (3) advertising the posting two times in a general circulation newspaper at least five days prior to actual posting; (4) contacting known heavy haulers who are using the road about executing a maintenance agreement; and (5) erecting standard signs showing the weight limit.
Excess maintenance agreement
After posting a road, the local government enters into an excess maintenance agreement with each hauler who will be operating overweight vehicles on that road. This agreement allows the local government to shift responsibility for repairing road damages on a pro rata basis to the haulers who damage the road. Note that haulers are only responsible for damage they cause in excess of normal wear and tear on the road.
Driving an overweight vehicle on posted roads generally requires a permit. The type of permit depends on the number of vehicles, the number of posted roads used, and the amount of use. Permits are issued only after an excess maintenance agreement has been signed.
Inspections and monitoring
Before overweight hauling begins, the local government inspects the road to determine its condition. The hauler, who pays for this service, has the right to be present. After hauling begins, the local government is responsible for monitoring the condition of the road and notifying the hauler of any necessary repairs. If the local government is responsible for making the repairs under the excess maintenance agreement, the local government bills the hauler for the costs.
Haulers generally must provide security to ensure payment for any road repairs for which they are responsible under the agreement. This security is usually a performance bond, a standby letter of credit, or a certified bank check. The regulations specify the amount of security that may be required for unpaved roads ($6,000 per linear mile) and paved roads ($12,500 per linear mile) in cases wherein the hauler agrees not to downgrade the road. When the local government and the hauler agree that the road type can be downgraded during hauling and restored after hauling ceases, the amount of security required is $50,000 per linear mile. If the hauler uses several roads for only a short time or makes relatively few trips, the rates per mile may be replaced with a flat rate of $10,000. By following these rules, local officials can assure taxpayers that they will not have to pay for road repairs caused by overweight vehicles, including logging trucks. In addition, landowners and loggers know what to expect when uniform statewide procedures are followed.
Forestry in Your Community
In the past, only a small proportion of Pennsylvanian local governments have chosen to regulate timber harvesting. However, it may be assumed that more municipalities will consider regulating as timber harvesting increases in our maturing forests and more residential development occurs in rural areas. Development brings more people from cities and suburbs into forested areas where timber harvesting has been a traditional practice. The resulting concerns may lead to calls for the adoption of a timber-harvesting ordinance. Whether this is the best solution for a community depends on the answers to several interrelated questions. This section identifies some of the key questions and suggests a process for answering them.
Examine the need for regulations
Why has timber harvesting become a concern? How extensive and frequent is timber harvesting in the community? What effect does it have on the community? Has it caused problems? If so, how significant are they compared to other land use questions that might potentially claim some of the local government's limited time and resources?
Different problems call for different solutions. For example, if people are most concerned about the impacts of heavier truck traffic, state law and regulation already provide a solution. The same is true for concerns about erosion and sedimentation or wetland degradation. Concerns about forest regeneration or wildlife may be best addressed by education, while concerns about the effects of land development on the forest suggest that a tree preservation ordinance rather than a timber harvesting ordinance is needed. A tree preservation ordinance is designed to preserve or restore trees as part of commercial or residential development, and it should be a part of the community's land development and subdivision ordinance.
Identify and compare alternative solutions
Local regulation is rarely the only way to resolve a conflict. What are the other alternatives, and how do they compare to local regulation in terms of cost and effectiveness? Would regulation of forestry cause landowners to subdivide and develop timberland? Consider not only the public benefits of each alternative, but also the burdens imposed on forest landowners and the forest industry. Are they reasonably balanced? Do any of the alternatives infringe upon landowner rights?
Avoid duplication of existing regulations
Find out whether your concerns are already addressed by state or local regulations. If so, further local action is not needed.
Evaluate Municipal Planning Code amendments prohibiting local government from unreasonably restricting forestry activity
The latest MPC amendments specifically direct all municipalities to permit forestry activities in their zoning ordinances as a "use by right" in all zoning districts. The intent is to make it easier to carry out all forestry activities by limiting the scope of zoning and other regulations. Municipalities that choose to regulate forestry activities will have to create reasonable ordinance provisions that encourage sound forestry principles and practices.
While these statutes do not define "unreasonable restriction" and no appellate court decisions have yet interpreted them, local officials should consult with their solicitors regarding the implications of these provisions before enacting an ordinance. Municipalities that prohibit timber harvesting in forested zoning districts, or that make timbering a special exception or conditional use subject to many burdensome and time-consuming requirements that are not in compliance with the forestry provisions of the MPC, will likely be challenged both by landowners and the forest industry.
Consider additional enforcement costs
An ordinance should be enacted only if it is going to be fairly and consistently enforced, and if the municipality is capable of administering it efficiently. Nearly all local governments assign enforcement authority to the zoning or code enforcement officer, who has many other duties and who rarely has any forestry training. Before enacting an ordinance, local officials should determine the resources needed for enforcement and then proceed only if they are prepared to provide these resources.
Try to anticipate all important consequences
All too often, legislation has unintended consequences (as in Murphy's famous law). For example, by effectively eliminating timber harvesting as a potential source of revenue for forest landowners, an overly restrictive or costly ordinance might create an unintended incentive for owners to convert this land to developed uses.
Carefully evaluate proposed forestry practices
A number of existing ordinances require specific forestry practices that are either unnecessary or destructive. For instance, some require artificial forest regeneration (tree planting), which is usually unnecessary in Pennsylvania, while others mandate the generally destructive practice of diameter-limit cutting (limiting harvesting to trees above a certain minimum diameter). Even forest practices that are right for some sites may be wrong for others. For these reasons, including specific forestry practices in local ordinances is generally unadvisable.
Consider the economic and operational impacts of a proposed ordinance on loggers and landowners
Timber harvesting provides important economic benefits to communities. Forest landowners pay taxes for the expected returns from the land. The income generated by timber sales is an incentive for landowners not to develop their land. Excessive regulatory costs directly reduce landowners' timber values and might encourage them to convert their land to developed uses.
Loggers are frequently constrained by small profit margins and tight work schedules that depend largely on weather conditions. Lengthy notification and permit processes can cause serious financial and scheduling problems.
Involve the community
Regulation of timber harvesting raises complex and potentially controversial questions. Conflicts may arise over timber harvesting, usually resulting in a no-win situation for everyone. Bringing all parties together prior to enacting ordinances may prevent future conflicts and avoid lawsuits. Community participation is a way of uniting people who are concerned about a problem to discuss and address the issues before they become confrontational. By promoting a cooperative atmosphere before the regulatory process begins, both sides will be given the chance to voice their concerns and attempt to reach a mutually satisfactory conclusion.
One way to help ensure that the solution adopted is best for the community is to establish a timber harvesting ordinance committee consisting of forest landowners, loggers, environmentalists, concerned citizens, foresters, professional resource managers, and other interested individuals or organizations. The committee should be directed to carry out the tasks described above and to recommend the appropriate action.
Consult a professional forester
Foresters can provide communities with valuable advice on a wide range of forest conservation issues. Foresters are experts in managing forests to provide multiple benefits on a sustained basis. They should be involved early in any discussion of timber-harvesting regulations.
Where to Go for Help
If your township or borough is considering enacting an ordinance on forest management or timber harvesting or is concerned about the impacts of timber harvesting on your community, you should involve a professional forester. The Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors can help you to locate forestry assistance. Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry service foresters also are available to help you to work through the issues and determine what is best for your community. Other sources of assistance are private consulting foresters; the Pennsylvania Department of Community Affairs; the Penn State School of Forest Resources and Penn State extension foresters; the Pennsylvania Forest Products Association; the Pennsylvania Forestry Association; and the Society of American Foresters. A list of addresses and telephone numbers is provided in the Appendix.
Sources of Forestry Assistance
Erosion and sedimentation; water permits; other environmental issues
County Conservation Districts: There are 66 districts; see the Blue Pages in your phone directory for the district that includes your area.
DCNR Bureau of Forestry Headquarters
6TH Floor, Rachel Carson State Office Bldg.
PO Box 8552
Harrisburg, PA 17105-8552
Bureau of Forestry district offices are listed below.
Pennsylvania Forest Products Association
545 W. Chocolate Avenue
Hershey, PA 17033
Phone: 800-232-HLMA or 717-312-1244
Department of Ecosystem Science and Management
The Pennsylvania State University
117 Forest Resources Building
University Park, PA 16802-4302
Society of American Foresters
5400 Grosvenor Lane
Bethesda, MD 20814-2198
This office can provide the name, address, and telephone number of the current president of the Pennsylvania Division of the Society of American Foresters.
Pennsylvania Forestry Association
56 East Main Street
Mechanicsburg, PA 17055
Private Consulting Foresters:
Association of Consulting Foresters of America, Inc.-- National Offie
723 N. Washington Street, Suite 4-A
Alexandria, VA 22314
The national office can provide the name, address, and telephone number of the current president of the Pennsylvania Association of Consulting Foresters. Also, forest district offices of the Bureau of Forestry can provide a list of Pennsylvania consulting foresters.
Pennsylvania Hardwoods Development Council
2301 N. Cameron Street, Room 308
Harrisburg, PA 17110-9408
Department of Community and Economic Development, Governor's Center for Local Government Services
4TH Floor, Commonwealth Keystone Bldg.
400 North Street
Harrisburg, PA 17120-0225
Phone: 1 888-2-CENTER or 717-787-8169
Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors
4855 Woodland Drive
Enola, PA 17025-1291
Pennsylvania Local Technical Assistance Program
Penn State Eastgate Center
1010 N. 7TH Street, Suite 304
Harrisburg, PA 17102
(click on Regional Information button)
District 1: Crawford, Erie, Forest, Mercer, Venango, Warren Phone: 814-678-5000
District 2: Cameron, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Elk, Juniata, McKean, Mifflin, Potter Phone: 814-765-0423
District 3: Bradford, Columbia, Lycoming, Montour, Northumberland, Snyder, Sullivan, Tioga, Union Phone: 570-368-8686
District 4: Lackawanna, Luzerne, Pike, Susquehanna, Wayne, Wyoming Phone: 570-963-4044
District 5: Berks, Carbon, Lehigh, Monroe, Northampton, Schuylkill Phone: 610-798-4113
District 6: Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, Philadelphia Phone: 610-205-6700
District 8: Adams, Cumberland, Dauphin, Franklin, Lancaster, Lebanon, Perry, York Phone: 717-787-6653
District 9: Bedford, Blair, Cambria, Fulton, Huntingdon, Somerset Phone: 814-696-7250
District 10: Armstrong, Butler, Clarion, Indiana, Jefferson Phone: 724-357-2800
District 11: Allegheny, Beaver, Lawrence Phone: 412-429-5000
District 12: Fayette, Greene, Washington, Westmoreland Phone: 724-439-7315
Forest Districts of Pennsylvania
- Michaux (Adams, Cumberland, Franklin, York) 10099 Lincoln Way East, Fayetteville, PA 17222, Phone: 717-352-2211
- Buchanan (Bedford, Fulton) 440 Buchanan Trail, McConnellsburg, PA 17233-8204, Phone: 717-485-3148
- Tuscarora (Juniata, Perry) R.R. 1 Box 486, Blain, PA 17006, Phone: 717-536-3191
- Forbes (Allegheny, Fayette, Greene, Somerset, Washington, Westmoreland) PO Box 519, Laughlintown, PA 15655, Phone: 724-238-1200
- Rothrock (Centre, Huntingdon) PO Box 403, Rothrock Lane, Huntingdon, PA 16652, Phone: 814-643-2340
- Gallitzin (Blair, Cambria, Indiana) PO Box 506, Ebensburg, PA 15931, Phone: 814-472-1862
- Bald Eagle (Mifflin, Snyder, Union) PO Box 147, Laurelton, PA 17835, Phone (570-922-3344
- Kittanning (Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Clarion, Jefferson, Lawrence, Mercer) 158 S. Second Avenue, Clarion, PA 16214-1904 Phone: 814-226-1901
- Moshannon (Clearfield) 3372 State Park Road, Penfield, PA 15849-9502 Phone: 814-765-0821
- Sproul (Clinton) 15187 Renovo Road, Renovo, PA 17764 Phone: 570-923-6011
- Lackawanna (Lackawanna, Susquehanna, Wayne, Wyoming) 401 Samters Bldg., 101 Penn Avenue, Scranton, PA 18503 Phone: 570-963-4561
- Tiadaghton (Lycoming) 423 East Central Avenue, South Williamsport, PA 17702, Phone: 570-327-3450
- Elk (Cameron, Elk) 258 Sizerville Road, Emporium, PA, 15834, Phone: 814-486-3353
- Cornplanter (Crawford, Erie, Forest, Venango, Warren) 323 N. State Street, North Warren, PA 16365, Phone: 814-723-0262
- Susquehannock (McKean, Potter) PO Box 673, Coudersport, PA 16915-0673, Phone: 814-274-3600
- Tioga (Bradford, Tioga) 1 Nessmuk Lane, Wellsboro, PA 16901, Phone: 570-724-2868
- Valley Forge (Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lancaster, Montgomery, Philadelphia) 845 Park Road, Elverson, PA 19520-9523, Phone: 610-582-9660
- Weiser (Carbon, Dauphin, Lebanon, Lehigh, Schuylkill) PO Box 99, Cressona, PA 17929, Phone: 570-385-7800
- Delaware (Northampton, Monroe, Pike) HC 1, Box 95A, Swiftwater, PA 18370-9723, Phone: 570-895-4000
- Wyoming (Columbia, Luzerne, Montour, Northumberland, Sullivan) 274 Arbutus Park Road, Bloomsburg, PA 17815, Phone: 570-387-4255