Soil Crusting and Reduced Emergence

The field had experienced heavy rain following planting followed by cool conditions.
Soil Crusting and Reduced Emergence - Articles
Soil Crusting and Reduced Emergence
The field had experienced heavy rain following planting followed by cool conditions. The soil surface showed little evidence of soil structure.
We carefully dug up row sections where plants had not emerged and found that the plants were leafing out underground. We diagnosed the problem as soil crusting.