Penn State Extension

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Figure 1. Space requirements for resting and rising dairy cow
Designing and Building Dairy Cattle Freestalls - Articles Articles

Designing and Building Dairy Cattle Freestalls

Dan McFarland, John Tyson, Robert Graves, Ph.D., P.E.

Freestalls (cubicles) provide dairy cows a clean, dry, comfortable resting space. Well-designed and properly maintained freestalls are a key component in a freestall housing system. More
Natural Ventilation for Freestall Barns
Natural Ventilation for Freestall Barns - Articles Articles

Natural Ventilation for Freestall Barns

Robert Graves, Ph.D., P.E.

Cows continuously produce heat and moisture so a ventilation system is necessary to continuously exchange inside air for drier, cooler outside air. More
Natural Ventilation for Dairy Tie Stall Barns
Natural Ventilation for Dairy Tie Stall Barns - Articles Articles

Natural Ventilation for Dairy Tie Stall Barns

Robert Graves, Ph.D., P.E.

Tie stall barns require a ventilation system that allows close control of air exchange and temperature to prevent the barn from reaching freezing temperatures. More
Recommendations for Calf and Heifer Housing Dimensions for Jerseys
Recommendations for Calf and Heifer Housing Dimensions for Jerseys - Articles Articles

Recommendations for Calf and Heifer Housing Dimensions for Jerseys

John Tyson, Dan McFarland, Robert Graves, Ph.D., P.E.

Summary of design suggestions for planning calf and heifer housing systems for Jersey cattle; a starting point for the design process. More
Photo credit: Amber Yutzy
Recommendations for Calf and Heifer Housing Dimensions for Holsteins - Articles Articles

Recommendations for Calf and Heifer Housing Dimensions for Holsteins

John Tyson, Dan McFarland, Robert Graves, Ph.D., P.E.

Summary of design suggestions for planning calf and heifer housing systems for Holstein dairy cattle; a starting point for the design process. More
On the Road: 4 Seasons Farm Market
On the Road: 4 Seasons Farm Market - Articles Articles

On the Road: 4 Seasons Farm Market

Elsa Sanchez, Ph.D., William Lamont, Jr., Ph.D., Thomas Maloney

We headed up to Susquehanna county to visit 4 Seasons Farm Market. 4 Seasons Farm Market is a 143 acre farm owned and operated by Tina and Gerald Carlin. More
All of plants shown here are in containers, plus many that cannot be seen in this image. It would be nearly impossible to keep them all watered properly without an irrigation system.
Building and Operating a Home Container Irrigation System - Articles Articles

Building and Operating a Home Container Irrigation System

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

Keeping many pots of flowers and vegetables watered consistently including when you are on vacation requires the installation of an irrigation system. More
Building and Operating a Home Garden Irrigation System
Building and Operating a Home Garden Irrigation System - Articles Articles

Building and Operating a Home Garden Irrigation System

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

Have you ever wondered how commercial fruit and vegetable growers can consistently get such huge quantities of great produce even in dry years? More
Container Grown Cucumbers, Zucchini and Squash
Container Grown Cucumbers, Zucchini and Squash - Articles Articles

Container Grown Cucumbers, Zucchini and Squash

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

This article, coupled with the advice in "Growing Great Container Vegetables #1: General Recommendations", will get you growing great cucumbers and squash. More
Container Grown Peppers
Container Grown Peppers - Articles Articles

Container Grown Peppers

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

This article, coupled with the advice in "Growing Great Container Vegetables #1: General Recommendations", should get you on the path to success. More
Container Grown Tomatoes
Container Grown Tomatoes - Articles Articles

Container Grown Tomatoes

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

Tomatoes are probably the #1 container vegetable that interests gardeners after herbs. More
General Recommendations for Growing Vegetables in Containers
General Recommendations for Growing Vegetables in Containers - Articles Articles

General Recommendations for Growing Vegetables in Containers

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

Basic steps include: making sure you have large enough containers, using great potting media, fertilizing, dealing with pests,and waterering. More
Container Grown Eggplants
Container Grown Eggplants - Articles Articles

Container Grown Eggplants

Tom Butzler, Thomas Maloney, Darryl Dressler

This article, coupled with the advice in "Growing Great Container Vegetables #1: General Recommendations", will get you growing great eggplants. More
Nutrient Budgets for PA Cropland: What They Reveal and How Can They Be Used?
Nutrient Budgets for PA Cropland: What They Reveal and How Can They Be Used? - Articles Articles

Nutrient Budgets for PA Cropland: What They Reveal and How Can They Be Used?

Douglas Beegle, Ph.D., Robert Graves, Ph.D., P.E., Kristen Saacke Blunk

Nutrient budgets have been developed by Mid-Atlantic Regional Water Program to quantify the magnitude and sources of excess nutrients that are being generated and applied throughout Pennsylvania. More