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Guidelines for Producing Unpasteurized Cider in Pennsylvania
Guidelines for Producing Unpasteurized Cider in Pennsylvania - Articles Articles

Guidelines for Producing Unpasteurized Cider in Pennsylvania

Luke LaBorde, Ph.D., Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

This publication explains how to follow established food safety and sanitation standards that minimize the risk for contamination. More
Los medios de las hileras podados cuidadosamente facilitan ver a los depredadores y atrapar roedores. Foto: Rob Crassweller
MIP – Prácticas de Manejo en la Postcosecha - Articles Articles
Después de completar la cosecha, tómese el tiempo para el manejo estratégico de las malezas, la vida silvestre y los niveles de nutrientes de los árboles. More
Soggy breakdown on 2014 PA fruit. Photo courtesy of Yosef Al Shoffe, Cornell
Fruit Disorders - Harvest Practices to Prevent Storage Disorders in Honeycrisp - Articles Articles

Fruit Disorders - Harvest Practices to Prevent Storage Disorders in Honeycrisp

Tara Baugher, James Schupp, Ph.D., Rich Marini, Ph.D., Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Chris Walsh

There are many factors that affect Honeycrisp storage behavior, and some occur during harvest. More
Manejo de Vida Salvaje en la Huerta-Roedores
Manejo de Vida Salvaje en la Huerta-Roedores - Articles Articles

Manejo de Vida Salvaje en la Huerta-Roedores

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher

Las poblaciones de roedores muestran fluctuaciones distintivas de la población de aproximadamente 4 ciclos anuales. More
Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
Orchard Nutrition: Determining Orchard Fertility Needs - Articles Articles
The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit. More
The nearer the pollinizer to the producing tree, the better distribution by the bees of pollen to all blossoms. Crabapples are often used as pollinizers.
Orchard Pollination: Pollinizers, Pollinators and Weather - Articles Articles
Pollination involves the integration of several biological and physical factors, including cultivar compatibility, synchronous blooming, insects, and proper weather conditions. More
Trees trained to a tall spindle system are commonly grown on M.9 rootstock, although new rootstocks are on the horizon.
Apple Rootstocks: Capabilities and Limitations - Articles Articles

Apple Rootstocks: Capabilities and Limitations

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., James Schupp, Ph.D.

Penn State participates in multi-state apple rootstock trials, such the NC-140 rootstock project. The following rootstock descriptions and comments are based on results from these trials. More
In high-density systems excessive growth is discouraged, and instead of a large, strong framework, a weak-framed tree is desirable. To achieve these ends in a system such as tall spindle, very little pruning is done in early years.
Orchard Production Systems: Selection Considerations - Articles Articles
Factors affecting an orchard production system include cost, spacing, plantsmanship, and labor. More
Goldrush has a long growing season and is an excellent late-season cultivar for south-central Pennsylvania.
Apple Cultivars: Scab Resistance Selections - Articles Articles

Apple Cultivars: Scab Resistance Selections

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Disease resistant cultivars were developed primarily for resistance to apple scab, but some are also resistant to cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, and fire blight. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Collect mid-shoot leaves on current season’s growth.
Orchard Nutrition - Sample for Foliar Analysis Mid-July to August - Articles Articles
Plant tissue analysis is used to directly measure the amount of nutrients in fruit trees, and for established perennial crops, is usually a better indicator of nutrient status than a soil test. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Top dominant trees in an older orchard. Photo: Rob Crasswellar, Penn State
Home Gardening: Pruning to Renovate Old Fruit Trees - Articles Articles

Home Gardening: Pruning to Renovate Old Fruit Trees

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Rich Marini, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Timothy Elkner

Use judicious pruning to renovate older fruit trees in your home landscape. More
Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan
Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan - Articles Articles

Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Applying herbicides in the fall is key to successful weed management. The application can also be part of an integrated management approach for other orchard pests like cat facing insects and rodents. More
Orchard Wildlife Management - Voles
Orchard Wildlife Management - Voles - Articles Articles

Orchard Wildlife Management - Voles

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Vole populations exhibit distinctive population fluctuations of approximately 4 year cycles. More
Pink Lady is a late season cultivar that, in some regions, may not reach full maturity before freezing temperatures occur. Before setting out large plantings of a new strain or cultivar, always plant a few trees on a trial basis.
Apple Cultivars - Articles Articles

Apple Cultivars

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Before setting out large plantings of a new strain or cultivar, always plant a few trees on a trial basis. More
Pine vole injury is found on the below-ground portions of a tree.
Orchard Wildlife Management: Preventing Vole Damage - Articles Articles

Orchard Wildlife Management: Preventing Vole Damage

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher

One of the last tasks in getting orchards ready for winter is planning your strategy to control voles and prevent their damage. More
Closely mowed row middles make it easier for predators to see and catch any potential rodents. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard IPM - Postharvest Management Practices - Articles Articles
After you have completed harvest, take time for strategic management of weeds, wildlife and tree nutrient levels. More
Photo by M. Seetin
Apple Crop Load Management - Carbon Balance Model - Articles Articles
The Cornell apple carbohydrate thinning model calculates a balance of apple tree supply to demand using the data entered from a chosen weather station. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
Peach Disorders - Skin Damage
Peach Disorders - Skin Damage - Articles Articles

Peach Disorders - Skin Damage

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Skin damage has been a problem in packed stone fruit in some years but it has been somewhat erratic here in PA. More
Photo: Amy Tabb
Orchard Precision - Sensor Technologies and Weather Modeling - Articles Articles

Orchard Precision - Sensor Technologies and Weather Modeling

James Schupp, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Sensor and imaging technologies, along with weather modeling, are being investigated for applications in intensive orchard systems. More
Las flores de manzanas requieren la polinización cruzada por abejas, y las variedades de polinización se tienen que incluir en un plan de plantación del huerto.
Señalamientos Acerca de la Polinización para Incrementar la Cosecha de Manzanas - Articles Articles
Este archivo describe los factores que afectan el proceso de polinización, la formación de las yemas florales y la floración. More
Los altos doseles del árbol estrechos son los más eficientes en la interceptación de la luz del sol y también adaptables a tecnologías de automatización.
Respuestas Básicas acerca de los Cortes de Poda en Árboles Frutales - Articles Articles

Respuestas Básicas acerca de los Cortes de Poda en Árboles Frutales

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Montserrat Fonseca Estrada

El arte de podar y conducir o guiar árboles se inició mucho antes de que se tuviera un conocimiento de las respuestas fisiológicas que ocurren como respuesta a esta manipulación física. More
Pruning and training are two different aspects of modifying naturally occurring growth patterns. Training involves tree development and form, whereas pruning involves tree function and size.
Fruit Tree Pruning - Basic Principles - Articles Articles

Fruit Tree Pruning - Basic Principles

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Fruit growers manipulate tree canopies to maximize fruit production by pruning to remove limbs or shoots or by bending limbs or shoots in specific orientations. More
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