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Figure 1. Caterpillar or sawfly? Accurate identification of the pest is critical when using bio-insecticides. Bt products will control small caterpillars, but would be ineffective on the sawfly larva shown in this photo.
Bio-insecticides in Greenhouse Ornamentals - Articles Articles

Bio-insecticides in Greenhouse Ornamentals

Lee Stivers, Ruth Benner

Bio-pesticides, also known as biological pesticides, are defined by the US EPA as pesticides derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, fungi, and certain minerals. More
Tools for Writing a Farm Food Safety Plan
Tools for Writing a Farm Food Safety Plan - Articles Articles

Tools for Writing a Farm Food Safety Plan

Lee Stivers, Luke LaBorde, Ph.D.

Penn State Extension offers a set of templates, checklist and logs, to assist farmers of fresh fruits and vegetables in writing farm food safety plans. More
Zenik Crespo (back, right) assists Hispanic participants as they identify weeds at Johnston’s Everygreen Nursery in Erie. Photo: L. Follett, Johnston’s Evergreen Nursery
Bilingual Workshops Teach Integrated Weed Management - Articles Articles
Penn State Extension has developed new resources for weed management and is beginning to offer bilingual training opportunities. More
El arar puede beneficiar o perjudicar la calidad del suelo. Foto cortesiá de Penn State Extension.
Introducción a los Suelos: El Manejo de los Suelos - Articles Articles
El Manejo de los suelos More
Moldboard plowing, shown here, is a type of primary tillage. Photo courtesy of Penn State Extension
Introduction to Soils: Managing Soils - Articles Articles
This article provides information on how different soil management practices affect soil quality and crop production. More
Recolección de una muestra para análisis de suelo. Foto cortesiá de Penn State Extension
Introducción a los Suelos: La Calidad de los Suelos - Articles Articles
La calidad del suelo es lo bien que el suelo hace lo que queremos que haga. Un suelo sano y de alta calidad es fértil, tiene buena estructura del suelo y es biológicamente activo. More
Collecting a soil sample to measure soil quality. Photo courtesy of Penn State Extension.
Introduction to Soils: Soil Quality - Articles Articles
Soil quality is how well soil does what we want it to do. A healthy, high-quality soil is fertile, has good soil structure, and is biologically active. More
Dave King and his son Eli.
Models for the Future: Harvest Valley Farm - Articles Articles

Models for the Future: Harvest Valley Farm

Lee Stivers, Marley E Skinner

Harvest Valley Farms is a fourth generation family farm. The farm is now owned and operated by Larry, Art, and David King. More
'Abion' strawberries and 'Polka' (left) and 'Josephine' raspberries (right) at Penn State's High Tunnel facility.
Growing Raspberries and Strawberries in Containers - Articles Articles
Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) High and Low Tunnel Berry Project Update #1—information on growing strawberries and raspberries in containers. More
Selecting the Right Seeding and Transplanting Strategies
Selecting the Right Seeding and Transplanting Strategies - Articles Articles
Figure out which strategies and what equipment fit with your scale, your finances, and your style with this overview. More
Photo: Tianna DuPont
Lo Que Necesita Saber Para Producir Trasplantes Sanos - Articles Articles
Muchas de las hortalizas comienzan como trasplantes en un invernadero y luego se plantan en el campo para su producción. More
El Establecimiento en el Campo: Siembra y Trasplante De Hortalizas
El Establecimiento en el Campo: Siembra y Trasplante De Hortalizas - Articles Articles
La plantación de la parcela es uno de los pasos más críticos en la producción de hortalizas. More
Photo: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Flickr.com (CC BY 2.0)
Biología de las Semillas y de las Plántulas - Articles Articles
La mayoría de las hortalizas comienzan sus vidas como semillas. More
Keeping greenhouses free of weeds helps control diseases and insect pests.
Zero Tolerance for Weeds in the Greenhouse - Articles Articles
"Don't let weeds grow in the greenhouse." Growers know it, customers sense it, and Extension educators preach it. But is zero tolerance for weeds attainable? More
Study circle participants share experiences around the dinner table.
Vegetable Growers Reflect on Improving Efficiency on Small Farms - Articles Articles
Vegetable growers share their experiences about how to make the most efficient use of time, tools, labor and resources on the farm. More
Carrot transplants are grown in large quantities in Italy. They must be transplanted before the taproot reaches the bottom of the tray cell. Photo: G. Rampinini
Which Vegetable Will We Be Transplanting Next? - Articles Articles
Growers have figured out how to transplant vegetable crops that we once thought could only be direct-seeded in the field. More
Transplanting by hand can be labor-intensive.
Taking it to the Field: Seeding and Transplanting Vegetables - Articles Articles
Stand establishment is one of the most critical steps in producing a successful crop of vegetables. More
Sowbugs and pillbugs congregate in moist areas. Photo by Sinclair Adam.
Sowbugs and Pillbugs: Occasional but Destructive Greenhouse Pests - Articles Articles
We hear periodic reports of sowbug and/or pillbug outbreaks in greenhouses and high tunnels in Pennsylvania. More
How good is your greenhouse water?
Water Quality Checklist for Greenhouse Growers - Articles Articles
A quick check of the quality of water you use for irrigation and pesticide application can save you time and headaches in the future. More
Photo: Tianna Dupont
What You Need to Grow Healthy Transplants - Articles Articles
Many vegetable crops are started in the greenhouse as transplants, and then planted out into the field for crop production. More
When retail greenhouse space gets scarce, plants literally get stacked up. Photo: L. Stivers, Penn State
When Plants Back Up in the Retail Greenhouse - Articles Articles
Timing product supply and quality with peak customer demand is often a challenge for greenhouse operators. More
Photo: Seedling, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Flickr.com (CC BY 2.0)
Understanding Seeds and Seedling Biology - Articles Articles
Most vegetable crops start their life as seeds. More
Landscape cloth was used to stablize this steep bank for planting to junipers. Two decades later, removing the landscape cloth is a huge chore.
Putting an End to My Landscape Fabric Nightmare - Articles Articles
Landscape fabric is often used in ornamental landscapes as a method to block weed growth permanently. More
Western Pennsylvania greenhouse operators gathered at Gumto Greenhouses on February 25th to tour the operation and to learn about energy efficiency.
Ten Easy Steps to Improve Greenhouse Efficiency - Articles Articles

Ten Easy Steps to Improve Greenhouse Efficiency

Daniel Ciolkosz, P.E., Lee Stivers

Winter low temperatures and high energy prices have greenhouse operators across the state looking for ways to manage heating and power costs. More
Exposed, chewed or missing seeds in greenhouse trays are signs of mouse activity. Snap traps are an effective control measure for mice and voles if populations aren't too large.
There's a Mouse in the (Green)house! - Articles Articles
This article discusses the two most common rodent pests of greenhouses, mice and voles, and how to control them. More
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