Penn State Extension

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Max Williamson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Local Extension Offices are Offering a Private Pesticide Applicator Short Course - News News
A two-day short course is being offered at local Penn State Extension offices across the state to prepare applicators for the private pesticide applicator exam. More
Soil Sampling
Soil Sampling - Videos Videos

Soil Sampling

Rachel Milliron

5:02

In this video, learn how to take representative soil samples in agronomic fields. More
Photo by jill111 on pixabay.com
Creating Health and Nutrition: Selecting Cheese for Health - Articles Articles

Creating Health and Nutrition: Selecting Cheese for Health

Stacy Reed, MS, Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D., Rayna Cooper

This fact sheet provides dietary tips and an overview of the nutrition information of cheese, explains why cheeses are so different, and briefly describes how cheese is manufactured. More
Corn earworm (CEW) and feeding on corn ear tip. Image credit: Rachel Milliron.
Identifying Corn Earworm - News News

Identifying Corn Earworm

09/05/2018

Finding corn ears with feeding on the ear tip? More
Farmstead and Artisan Cheesemaking
Farmstead and Artisan Cheesemaking - Articles Articles

Farmstead and Artisan Cheesemaking

Sarah Cornelisse, Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D., Lynn Kime, Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D., Emily Montgomery

The renaissance of farm-based dairy processing can be attractive, but it is imperative that farmers research and plan all aspects of a new enterprise. More
Writing Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) Writing Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) - Articles
Consistently using correct cleaning and sanitizing procedures in dairy and food processing plants is the foundation to producing high quality, safe food. More
Key Concepts of Cleaning and Sanitizing
Key Concepts of Cleaning and Sanitizing - Articles Articles

Key Concepts of Cleaning and Sanitizing

Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D.

Proper cleaning and sanitizing is essential to producing high quality, safe dairy foods. A well-informed and trained staff provides the foundation for safe food processing. More
Cleaning and Sanitizing Wood Boards for Cheese Aging
Cleaning and Sanitizing Wood Boards for Cheese Aging - Articles Articles
The traditional practice of using wood boards for cheese aging must meet the contemporary practice of sanitation to ensure food safety. More
Pennsylvania Dairy Plant and Raw Milk Directory
Pennsylvania Dairy Plant and Raw Milk Directory - Guides and Publications Guides and Publications

Pennsylvania Dairy Plant and Raw Milk Directory

Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D.

72

$3.85
This 2014 publication provides a listing of the dairy foods permit holders in Pennsylvania, including dairies holding PDA grade A, non-grade A, manufacturing, aged cheese, and raw milk permits. More
Spotted lanternfly on apple in Berks County, PA in October 2017. Photo: Erica Smyers, Penn State
Spotted Lanternfly on Grapes and Tree Fruit - Articles Articles

Spotted Lanternfly on Grapes and Tree Fruit

Julie Urban, Dave Biddinger, Ph.D., Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Biology, management and slowing the spread of the spotted lanternfly on grapes and tree fruit in the Mid-Atlantic Region. More
Penn State Extension Cheese Tracking System
Penn State Extension Cheese Tracking System - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Penn State Extension Cheese Tracking System

Kerry E. Kaylegian, Ph.D.

The Cheese Tracking System helps cheesemakers track quality and consistency attributes in order to improve their cheese and troubleshoot problems. More
Pitch mass, a symptom of Zimmerman pine moth, located at the junction of a lateral branch and main stem. Courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org (#1325082)
Zimmerman Pine Moth - Articles Articles

Zimmerman Pine Moth

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Field identification is usually through the presence of a popcornlike pitch mass on the main trunk. Damage includes reddish, sawdustlike frass at bore holes. More
Typical “shepherd’s crook” symptomatic of white pine weevil infestation. Courtesy of PDA
White Pine Weevils - Articles Articles

White Pine Weevils

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

White pine weevil adults have long snouts and elbowed antenna with terminal knobs. Damage includes a typical "shepherd's crook" wilt. More
Damage from deer to a Scots pine. Courtesy of Jan Liska, Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Bugwood.org (#2113036)
Vertebrate Pests of Christmas Trees - Articles Articles
Birds tend not to be a big problem associated with Christmas tree production, but damage occasionally occurs to the tops, particularly of taller trees. More
Elliptical cankers covered with yellow blisters that release infectious spores to be carried away by the wind. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
White Pine Blister Rust - Articles Articles

White Pine Blister Rust

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

A small, yellow or red spot appears on the needle at the site of infection and the needle may die as the fungus grows into the bark. Damage shows up as dead or dying branches. More
White grub damage to seedlings. Courtesy of Jim Stimmel, PDA
White Grubs (May, June and Japanese Beetles) - Articles Articles
Larvae of white grubs feed on roots of conifer seedlings and transplants. Damage includes seedling discoloration (reddish brown) in late summer to early fall. More
Swiss Needle Cast
Swiss Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Swiss Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Symptoms are present on Douglas fir needles within 3 years of infection. The fruiting bodies can be seen with a hand lens. Damage includes dieback of needle tips resembling drought damage. More
Severe scale crawler infestation on Scotch pine, along with a heavy amount of sooty mold (black coating on stem and needles). Courtesy of Brian Schildt, PDA
Striped Pine Scale - Articles Articles

Striped Pine Scale

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

The coverings of adult female scales resemble miniature helmets. They are reddish brown and may have cream or white stripes. Damage may show as black sooty mold. More
Spruce spider mite feeding damage. Courtesy of Eric R. Day, Virginia Tech, Bugwood.org (#0717020)
Spruce Spider Mites - Articles Articles

Spruce Spider Mites

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Spruce spider mites can develop from an egg to an adult in 2–3 weeks under normal conditions. Damage includes small, irregularly shaped yellow spots (“stippling”) on needles. More
Yellow bands containing faint orange fruiting bodies distinctive of spruce needle rust. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Spruce Needle Rust - Articles Articles

Spruce Needle Rust

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Infected trees may appear disfigured and have extensive needle discoloration, reduced growth, and premature needle drop. Damage will show as pale yellow bands that go completely around the needle. More
Rhizosphaera-infected foliage on inner branches and lower parts of the tree. Courtesy of USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station Archive, Bugwood.org (#1406191)
Rhizosphaera Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Rhizosphaera Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Young trees sustain the most severe damage from rhizosphaera needle cast, but trees of any size can be affected. Damage causes discoloration of needles. More
Foliage with Rhabdocline needle cast infection. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Rhabdocline Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Rhabdocline Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

This infection occurs around bud break, when buds are opening to expose susceptible immature needles. Damage shows up as yellow spots or flecks that enlarge with time. More
Girdling lesions banding the needle. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Red-Band (Dothistroma) Needle Blight - Articles Articles
Red-band needle blight occurs throughout the growing season during wet periods. Initial symptoms include dark green bands on the needles, quickly replaced with brown or reddish-brown lesions. More
Symptoms of needles infected with Ploioderma needle cast. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Ploioderma Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Ploioderma Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Although Ploioderma needle cast occurs in spring, symptoms are not apparent until winter when yellow spots and bands appear, giving the needles a mottled appearance. More
Dead tree with reddish-brown needles still attached. Courtesy of A. Steven Munson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org (#1470133)
Pine Wilt Disease - Articles Articles

Pine Wilt Disease

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Pinewood nematodes spread from infected to healthy pines in the spring through contaminated pine sawyer beetles. Needles turn yellow then reddish brown. More
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