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Yogurt Dairy Refrigerator-2722678 by Albany Colley. Pixabay.com. CC0
Dairy Outlook: October 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: October 2018

Robert C. Goodling, Jr., David L. Swartz, Claudia Schmidt, Ph.D., Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

Current dairy markets are hinting at potential gradual increase in milk price into 2019. Global trade volatility continues to hinder widespread optimism. More
milk-spilt-white-glass-spill-1543193 by ponce_photography. Pixabay.com CC0
Dairy Outlook: September 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: September 2018

Robert C. Goodling, Jr., David L. Swartz, Claudia Schmidt, Ph.D., Virginia A. Ishler, Timothy Beck

Milk prices remain on the low side of a four-year modest price range. Monitoring a producer's individual price regularly is vital to see trends and potential opportunities at the farm level. More
La roña de la manzana necesita material orgánico para invernar
MIP – Exploración y Manejo de la Roña de la Manzana - Articles Articles

MIP – Exploración y Manejo de la Roña de la Manzana

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D., Montserrat Fonseca Estrada, Tianna Dupont

Asegúrese de saber dónde pasa el invierno la roña de manzana, cómo supervisarla y cuándo es más probable que aparezca. More
Telephone-telegraph-pole-wire-1822040 by aitoff. Pixabay.com. cc0
Dairy Outlook: June 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: June 2018

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

Milk price continued slow climb, but milk margins remain tight. Current tumultuous environment in global trade may limit long term progress. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Tiny, black, spherical structures are produced on stalks above the white mold. Each of these contains thousands of spores that are released to float in the air. Photo by K. Peter.
Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Rhizopus rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans, can be very destructive to harvested fruit. More
Source: Mary Ann Hansen, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org
Apple Disease - Blossom End Rot - Articles Articles

Apple Disease - Blossom End Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Blossom end rot of apple, is caused by various fungi (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrysphaeria obtusa) just before or during petal fall. More
David Swartz, Penn State
Dairy Outlook: May 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: May 2018

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

Long term survival of a dairy operation will hinge on management’s ability to find ways to push the cost of production below $17.50/cwt while maintaining some level of reinvestment in the operation. More
"duck-2166056" alexas_fotos, pixabay.com CC0
Dairy Outlook: April 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: April 2018

Robert C. Goodling, Jr., David L. Swartz, Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

Pennsylvania dairy cash flows continue to be upside down as income over feed cost and milk margins shrink and are below breakeven levels. More
Credit Squeeze by Stevepb on pixabay.com cc0
Dairy Outlook: March 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: March 2018

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Virginia A. Ishler, Timothy Beck

With cow numbers steady, increasing domestic milk production, robust inventory of dairy products, and other factors, there are no market signals to indicate strength for future milk prices. More
Roller Coaster by dlohner on pixabay.com cc0
Dairy Outlook: February 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: February 2018

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

All milk price for December 2017 showed the anticipated drop from the previous month. Feed price were steady, created a slightly smaller Income over Feed Cost opportunity. More
"Glass-milk-white-cows-milk" by Pezibear on pixabay.com CC0
Dairy Outlook: January 2018 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: January 2018

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Virginia A. Ishler, Timothy Beck

Current predicted Class III price for the first 11 months of 2018 is averaging $14.57/cwt. To face the year with optimism is to be sure dairy producers really understand their cost of production. More
R. Goodling Penn State
Dairy Outlook: December 2017 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: December 2017

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

The milk price forecast for 2018 is starting to solidify, and good news is hard to find. U.S. milk production growth has slowed, but global supply is still hampering future price increases. More
"Open road stormy sky" Desertrose7, pixabay.com CC0
Dairy Outlook: November 2017 - Articles Articles

Dairy Outlook: November 2017

David L. Swartz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

Markets continue to move sideways with little prospect for forecast price improvement. None of the factors that are well known give much optimism for price improvement More
Protect tart cherries during bloom to prevent cherry leaf spot infection.
Tree Fruit Diseases - Spring Control Strategies - Articles Articles
May is the battleground month for disease management: be on alert for apple scab, fire blight, powdery mildew, rust, cherry leaf spot, brown rot, and bacterial spot infection conditions. More
Orchard IPM - Apple Scab Scouting and Management
Orchard IPM - Apple Scab Scouting and Management - Articles Articles

Orchard IPM - Apple Scab Scouting and Management

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D., Tianna DuPont

Make sure you know where apple scab overwinters, how to monitor, and when it is most likely to appear. More
Be sure to protect your fruit from rots: bitter rot on Red Delicious. (Photo credit: K. Peter)
Tree Fruit Diseases - Managing Pre- and Postharvest Rots - Articles Articles
A big disease concern is keeping fruit free of rots as they are nearing the home stretch of the season. More
Brown rot can cause shoot blight. (Photo: K. Peter)
Tree Fruit Diseases - Brown Rot, Fire Blight, Root Rots - Articles Articles
With peach season in full swing, mid-season management strategies are reviewed. More
Pear Disease - Stony Pit
Pear Disease - Stony Pit - Articles Articles

Pear Disease - Stony Pit

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Stony pit of pear is presumed to be caused by a destructive virus, but the virus has not been isolated. Affected fruit are unsightly and unmarketable. More
Photo by K. Peter.
Pear Disease - Sooty Mold - Articles Articles

Pear Disease - Sooty Mold

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Sooty mold fungi of the genus Capnodium cause an unsightly blackening over the surface of fruit and leaves. More
Spores of the fungi are windblown into and throughout the orchard; fruit infection can occur any time after petal fall but is most prevalent in mid- to late summer. Photo by K. Peter.
Apple Diseases - Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck - Articles Articles
Affecting apple, crabapple, and pear trees, sooty blotch and flyspeck of apple are separate diseases, but both are normally present on the same fruit. More
Rusty spot is recognized only on the fruit. The earliest symptoms on young green fruit appear as small, orange-tan spots. K. Peter.
Peach Disease - Rusty Spot - Articles Articles

Peach Disease - Rusty Spot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Minor issue in Pennsylvania and is caused by the same fungus as apple powdery mildew. Loring is a susceptible variety. More
On leaves, cedar-apple rust first appears as small, pale yellow spots on the upper surfaces. The spots enlarge to about 1∕8 inch in diameter. Photo by K. Peter.
Apple Diseases - Rust - Articles Articles

Apple Diseases - Rust

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

There are three rust diseases: cedar-apple rust, hawthorn rust, and quince rust. The most common is cedar-apple rust, Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae. More
A declining tree with bark removed from graft union to show necrosis. Note numerous rootstock suckers. (Photo: K. Peter)
Apple Disease - Rapid Apple Decline (RAD) or Sudden Apple Decline (SAD)? - Articles Articles
There is a mystery surrounding rapid apple decline/sudden apple decline of young, dwarf apple trees. More
Dagger Nematode (Xiphinema spp.). Photo courtesy N.C. State University.
Nematodes - Preventing Problems in Deciduous Fruit Trees - Articles Articles
Nematodes reduce tree vigor and crop yields by parasitizing tree roots; they predispose trees to disease, reduce winter hardiness, and transmit viruses. More
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