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Manure Management Project Book for Youth
Manure Management for Youth Projects - Articles Articles
Manure impacts water quality. In PA, everyone who produces manure needs a plan. That includes 4-H youth. More
In determining whether to make hay, know how much you can harvest and at what point you’re considering mowing.
Challenges and Considerations for Fall Hay Harvest - Articles Articles

Challenges and Considerations for Fall Hay Harvest

Jessica A. Williamson, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker, Adriana Murillo-Williams

Successful management of forage stands in the fall hinges on properly evaluating stands and giving plants enough leaf area to survive the winter. More
Diplodia ear rot. Photo Credit: Alyssa Collins
Corn Ear Rots and Mycotoxins - Articles Articles

Corn Ear Rots and Mycotoxins

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

There are many pathogens that cause ear rots. Identify which ones are associated with mycotoxin contamination! More
Figure 1. Wheat seed and young seedlings affected by Fusarium graminearum (white arrows). (Photo credit: Brandon Wilt, PSU-PPEM.)
Wheat and Barley Diseases: What is in Your Seed? - Articles Articles

Wheat and Barley Diseases: What is in Your Seed?

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Seeds can serve as the vehicle for unwanted plant pathogens and weeds. Avoid the risks! More
Mid-ear cutworm injury resulting in subsequent ear mold infection by several pathogens. Image credit: G. Roth
Avoiding Mycotoxins in Grain Corn and Silage - Articles Articles

Avoiding Mycotoxins in Grain Corn and Silage

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker, Adriana Murillo-Williams

Toxins caused by fungi are a real concern in grain corn and silage. Is there anything we can do about it? More
Flooding around your home and on the farm could be leading to issues you need to address. Image Credit: Jennifer Fetter
After the Flood – Recovery Considerations for Rural Pennsylvanians - Articles Articles

After the Flood – Recovery Considerations for Rural Pennsylvanians

Jennifer R Fetter, Leon Ressler, Andy Yencha

Parts of Pennsylvania were drenched with heavy rains and flooded streams recently. In addition to drying out wet basements, there are few important things that rural Pennsylvanian’s might want to pay special attention to. More
Figure 1. Soybean cyst nematodes females (yellow arrows) and nodules (white arrows) on soybean roots. Photo credit: Penn State Department of Plant Pathology & Environmental Microbiology Archives, Penn State University, Bugwood.org
Plant Parasitic Nematodes Explained - Articles Articles

Plant Parasitic Nematodes Explained

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Have you noticed a decline in yield without a clear explanation? It could be due to plant parasitic nematodes. More
Grey Leaf Spot in corn. Image Credit: Alyssa Collins
Early-season Corn Fungicide Considerations - Articles Articles

Early-season Corn Fungicide Considerations

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Does it pay to spray at V5 to V7, or even V10, corn? What factors should we consider before pulling the trigger? More
Photo Credit: “Road Closed Road Flooded” by David Marsh on Flickr.com - CC BY 2.0
Why Does My Community Flood More Than it Used to? - Articles Articles
Floods are a nuisance. Whether in the streets, parking lots, or your own front yard – they are no fun. Have you ever wondered why your community floods more now than it used to? More
Stormwater Basics
Stormwater Basics - Articles Articles

Stormwater Basics

Jennifer R Fetter

Ready-to-Use Educational Toolkit for Stormwater Management More
Bin-run seed lacks the quality of certified seed. Photo credit: Alyssa Collins
Bin-run Seed: Associated Risks for Soybean Production - Articles Articles

Bin-run Seed: Associated Risks for Soybean Production

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Before you try to save money by planting farm-saved seed, know the hidden costs! More
Treated (left) and non-treated (right) soybean seeds. Photo credit: Paul Esker & Alyssa Collins, Penn State.
Seed Selection Based on Disease Resistance Ratings - Articles Articles

Seed Selection Based on Disease Resistance Ratings

Paul D. Esker, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D.

Make choices for a healthy crop next season before putting even one seed in the ground. More
Tansparency Tube
FISH: Understanding Your Transparency Tube Measurements - Articles Articles
Part of the "First Investigation of Stream Health" activity. Transparency tubes are popular for use in stream monitoring programs. More
Bullfrog. Photo: Lesa Willis
FISH: Pennsylvania Frog and Toad Breeding Phenology - Articles Articles

FISH: Pennsylvania Frog and Toad Breeding Phenology

Jennifer R Fetter, Kristen Kyler

Part of the "First Investigation of Stream Health" activity. In central Pennsylvania there are three distinct periods in which potential species can be expected to begin breeding. More
Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Academic Standards
Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Academic Standards - Articles Articles

Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Academic Standards

Kristen Kyler, Jennifer R Fetter

The following is a list of current Pennsylvania Academic Standards addressed within the Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow curriculum. More
Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Curriculum
Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Curriculum - Articles Articles

Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Curriculum

Kristen Kyler, Jennifer R Fetter

Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow is a hands-on stormwater education curriculum available from Penn State Extension and Pennsylvania 4-H. More
Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Adaptation
Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Adaptation - Articles Articles

Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow: Adaptation

Kristen Kyler, Jennifer R Fetter

Tips for using the Rain to Drain - Slow the Flow Curriculum at fairs and community events when time is limited. More
Triploid grass carp are one potential management strategy for aquatic plants in your pond
Using Grass Carp to Control Aquatic Plants - Articles Articles

Using Grass Carp to Control Aquatic Plants

Bryan Swistock, Jennifer R Fetter, Amy Galford, James Andrew Clark

This information explains how to use grass carp for biological aquatic vegetation control. More
Watershed Welcome Sign
Introduction to Watersheds - Articles Articles

Introduction to Watersheds

Jennifer R Fetter

Have you ever passed a sign welcoming you to a watershed and wondered what it means? Here are some basic facts about watersheds to help you out. More
After restoring your stream side property, how can you measure the success of your efforts?
First Investigation of Stream Health (FISH) Protocol - Articles Articles

First Investigation of Stream Health (FISH) Protocol

Jennifer R Fetter, Kristen Kyler

Do you enjoy outdoor activities? Become a citizen scientist. First Investigation of Stream Health (FISH) monitors changes to local streams and their habitats. More
A group of youth learn about the importance of water clarity at a Penn State Extension program.
Youth Water Education - Articles Articles

Youth Water Education

Jennifer R Fetter

A variety of resources and opportunities are available from Penn State Extension to help you provide youth with water education experiences. More
Exposed and eroding stream banks can be restored and stabilized through the practice of live staking.
Live Staking for Stream Restoration - Articles Articles

Live Staking for Stream Restoration

Jennifer R Fetter, Kristen Kyler

A brief introduction and instructional guide to using live staking as an inexpensive and simple technique to restoring eroding stream banks. More
Glass of water
The Water We Drink - Articles Articles

The Water We Drink

Jennifer R Fetter, James Andrew Clark

Written for youth in grades 6-12, this tool introduces public and private water systems and includes an activity on how to read a water quality test report. More
Watershed Resources for Teachers and Students
Watershed Resources for Teachers and Students - Articles Articles
Curricula ideas for the classroom and the field. More