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Alfalfa regrowth after the last summer cutting. Image Credit: Hanna Wells.
Potassium Management to Improve Alfalfa Winter Survival - Articles Articles
Proper potassium management in fall can improve winter survival of alfalfa. More
Manure storages that capture runoff from barn roofs or other impervious surfaces are likely to fill up sooner than expected due to the extreme rainfall this summer. Image credit: Charlie White
Manure Management When Storages Fill Up Sooner than Expected - News News
With the extreme rainfall over the last month, some farms may need to start emptying manure storages sooner than normal. Here are some points to consider when doing so. More
Nitrogen deficiency in corn, characterized by yellowing along the midrib of the lower leaves, starting at the leaf tip and moving towards the stalk. (Image credit: Charlie White)
What is the Potential for Nitrogen Losses from Extreme Summer Rainfall - Articles Articles
The severity of nitrogen losses from extreme summer rainfalls, and how you react to them, depends on many factors. More
Potassium deficiency on this corn crop is exhibited by yellowing and necrosis of the leaf edges in the lower part of the canopy. Image credit: Jeff Graybill
Scouting for Nutrient Deficiencies - Articles Articles
Regular visual inspections, paired with tissue testing, soil sampling, and some help from eyes in the sky, can help diagnose nutrient deficiencies in a growing crop. More
Corn in wet areas of this field is suffering from a nitrogen deficiency due to early season nitrogen losses. Photo credit: Charlie White
Is Your Nitrogen Still There? - News News

Is Your Nitrogen Still There?

06/06/2018

With the cool and wet weather in many parts of the state, you might be wondering whether the nitrogen you applied to corn this spring has been lost. More
Urea granules treated with a urease inhibitor. Photo credit: Charlie White
Will Your Nitrogen Stabilizer be Effective? - Articles Articles
Nitrogen stabilizer products are valuable management tools to prevent losses of N fertilizer and increase N use efficiency by the crop. Knowing how these products work will you help you maximize their effectiveness. More
Photo credit: Patrick Drohan
Soil pH Affects Forage Production - Articles Articles

Soil pH Affects Forage Production

Jessica A. Williamson, Ph.D., Charles White

Soil pH can be one of the greatest determinates of forage productivity and stand life. More
A field must have greater than 25% crop residue cover or a cover crop to be eligible for winter manure spreading, along with other restrictions. Photo credit: Charlie White
The Do’s and Don’ts of Winter Manure Spreading - Articles Articles
If winter manure spreading is absolutely unavoidable, follow these requirements to do it legally. More
Can I Apply Potash in Winter?
Can I Apply Potash in Winter? - Articles Articles

Can I Apply Potash in Winter?

Charles White, Nicole Santangelo

Ensuring properly timed potassium applications where they are needed when conditions permit. More
Photo caption: Charlie White, PSU
Charlie White, Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management Extension Specialist - News News
The torch is passed in the soil fertility and nutrient management Extension program. More
Spotted lanternfly on apple in Berks County, PA in October 2017. Photo: Erica Smyers, Penn State
Spotted Lanternfly on Grapes and Tree Fruit - Articles Articles

Spotted Lanternfly on Grapes and Tree Fruit

Julie Urban, Dave Biddinger, Ph.D., Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Biology, management and slowing the spread of the spotted lanternfly on grapes and tree fruit in the Mid-Atlantic Region. More
Pitch mass, a symptom of Zimmerman pine moth, located at the junction of a lateral branch and main stem. Courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org (#1325082)
Zimmerman Pine Moth - Articles Articles

Zimmerman Pine Moth

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Field identification is usually through the presence of a popcornlike pitch mass on the main trunk. Damage includes reddish, sawdustlike frass at bore holes. More
Typical “shepherd’s crook” symptomatic of white pine weevil infestation. Courtesy of PDA
White Pine Weevils - Articles Articles

White Pine Weevils

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

White pine weevil adults have long snouts and elbowed antenna with terminal knobs. Damage includes a typical "shepherd's crook" wilt. More
Damage from deer to a Scots pine. Courtesy of Jan Liska, Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Bugwood.org (#2113036)
Vertebrate Pests of Christmas Trees - Articles Articles
Birds tend not to be a big problem associated with Christmas tree production, but damage occasionally occurs to the tops, particularly of taller trees. More
Elliptical cankers covered with yellow blisters that release infectious spores to be carried away by the wind. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
White Pine Blister Rust - Articles Articles

White Pine Blister Rust

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

A small, yellow or red spot appears on the needle at the site of infection and the needle may die as the fungus grows into the bark. Damage shows up as dead or dying branches. More
White grub damage to seedlings. Courtesy of Jim Stimmel, PDA
White Grubs (May, June and Japanese Beetles) - Articles Articles
Larvae of white grubs feed on roots of conifer seedlings and transplants. Damage includes seedling discoloration (reddish brown) in late summer to early fall. More
Swiss Needle Cast
Swiss Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Swiss Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Symptoms are present on Douglas fir needles within 3 years of infection. The fruiting bodies can be seen with a hand lens. Damage includes dieback of needle tips resembling drought damage. More
Severe scale crawler infestation on Scotch pine, along with a heavy amount of sooty mold (black coating on stem and needles). Courtesy of Brian Schildt, PDA
Striped Pine Scale - Articles Articles

Striped Pine Scale

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

The coverings of adult female scales resemble miniature helmets. They are reddish brown and may have cream or white stripes. Damage may show as black sooty mold. More
Spruce spider mite feeding damage. Courtesy of Eric R. Day, Virginia Tech, Bugwood.org (#0717020)
Spruce Spider Mites - Articles Articles

Spruce Spider Mites

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Spruce spider mites can develop from an egg to an adult in 2–3 weeks under normal conditions. Damage includes small, irregularly shaped yellow spots (“stippling”) on needles. More
Yellow bands containing faint orange fruiting bodies distinctive of spruce needle rust. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Spruce Needle Rust - Articles Articles

Spruce Needle Rust

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Infected trees may appear disfigured and have extensive needle discoloration, reduced growth, and premature needle drop. Damage will show as pale yellow bands that go completely around the needle. More
Rhizosphaera-infected foliage on inner branches and lower parts of the tree. Courtesy of USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station Archive, Bugwood.org (#1406191)
Rhizosphaera Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Rhizosphaera Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Young trees sustain the most severe damage from rhizosphaera needle cast, but trees of any size can be affected. Damage causes discoloration of needles. More
Foliage with Rhabdocline needle cast infection. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Rhabdocline Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Rhabdocline Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

This infection occurs around bud break, when buds are opening to expose susceptible immature needles. Damage shows up as yellow spots or flecks that enlarge with time. More
Girdling lesions banding the needle. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Red-Band (Dothistroma) Needle Blight - Articles Articles
Red-band needle blight occurs throughout the growing season during wet periods. Initial symptoms include dark green bands on the needles, quickly replaced with brown or reddish-brown lesions. More
Symptoms of needles infected with Ploioderma needle cast. Courtesy of Tracey Olson, PDA
Ploioderma Needle Cast - Articles Articles

Ploioderma Needle Cast

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Although Ploioderma needle cast occurs in spring, symptoms are not apparent until winter when yellow spots and bands appear, giving the needles a mottled appearance. More
Dead tree with reddish-brown needles still attached. Courtesy of A. Steven Munson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org (#1470133)
Pine Wilt Disease - Articles Articles

Pine Wilt Disease

Ed Rajotte, Ph.D.

Pinewood nematodes spread from infected to healthy pines in the spring through contaminated pine sawyer beetles. Needles turn yellow then reddish brown. More
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