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In determining whether to make hay, know how much you can harvest and at what point you’re considering mowing.
Challenges and Considerations for Fall Hay Harvest - Articles Articles

Challenges and Considerations for Fall Hay Harvest

Jessica A. Williamson, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker, Adriana Murillo-Williams

Successful management of forage stands in the fall hinges on properly evaluating stands and giving plants enough leaf area to survive the winter. More
Diplodia ear rot. Photo Credit: Alyssa Collins
Corn Ear Rots and Mycotoxins - Articles Articles

Corn Ear Rots and Mycotoxins

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

There are many pathogens that cause ear rots. Identify which ones are associated with mycotoxin contamination! More
Figure 1. Wheat seed and young seedlings affected by Fusarium graminearum (white arrows). (Photo credit: Brandon Wilt, PSU-PPEM.)
Wheat and Barley Diseases: What is in Your Seed? - Articles Articles

Wheat and Barley Diseases: What is in Your Seed?

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Seeds can serve as the vehicle for unwanted plant pathogens and weeds. Avoid the risks! More
A soybean plant with Sudden Death Syndrome
Soybean Sudden Death and Brown Stem Rot: How to Tell the Difference - Articles Articles

Soybean Sudden Death and Brown Stem Rot: How to Tell the Difference

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Adriana Murillo-Williams

These two nasty soybean diseases can be hard to tell apart. Learn what to look for so you can know your enemy. More
Mid-ear cutworm injury resulting in subsequent ear mold infection by several pathogens. Image credit: G. Roth
Avoiding Mycotoxins in Grain Corn and Silage - Articles Articles

Avoiding Mycotoxins in Grain Corn and Silage

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker, Adriana Murillo-Williams

Toxins caused by fungi are a real concern in grain corn and silage. Is there anything we can do about it? More
Figure 1. Soybean cyst nematodes females (yellow arrows) and nodules (white arrows) on soybean roots. Photo credit: Penn State Department of Plant Pathology & Environmental Microbiology Archives, Penn State University, Bugwood.org
Plant Parasitic Nematodes Explained - Articles Articles

Plant Parasitic Nematodes Explained

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Have you noticed a decline in yield without a clear explanation? It could be due to plant parasitic nematodes. More
Figure 1. Soybean field showing variable growth and development at the R1-R2 (flowering) growth stage Photo Credit: P. Esker.
Soybean Stem Diseases: What are the Different Symptoms and Signs? - Articles Articles

Soybean Stem Diseases: What are the Different Symptoms and Signs?

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker, Adriana Murillo-Williams

Soybean growth and development has been variable this year – what might we expect to find as the season progresses? More
Bin-run seed lacks the quality of certified seed. Photo credit: Alyssa Collins
Bin-run Seed: Associated Risks for Soybean Production - Articles Articles

Bin-run Seed: Associated Risks for Soybean Production

Adriana Murillo-Williams, Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Paul D. Esker

Before you try to save money by planting farm-saved seed, know the hidden costs! More
Malting Barley in Pennsylvania
Malting Barley in Pennsylvania - Articles Articles

Malting Barley in Pennsylvania

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Austin Kirt, Gregory W. Roth, Ph.D.

Demand for locally sourced malted barley, for local craft beer, has led to the development of malt houses in PA and other states in our region. More
Annuals will provide continuous blooms throughout the growing season.
Plant Life Cycles - Articles Articles

Plant Life Cycles

Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

Plants are classified by the number of growing seasons required to complete their life cycle. Generally, these groups are annuals, biennials, and perennials. More
Nomenclature
Nomenclature - Articles Articles

Nomenclature

Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

Plants may be known by different common names, and one name may refer to various plants within several species. Use the scientific or botanical name to properly identify plant material. More
Pruning Herbaceous Plants
Pruning Herbaceous Plants - Articles Articles

Pruning Herbaceous Plants

Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

A certain amount of maintenance is needed to keep a garden looking its best. This minimal effort may mean the difference between a garden that is mediocre and one that evokes many compliments. More
How to Pasteurize Medium and Sterilize Containers and Tools
How to Pasteurize Medium and Sterilize Containers and Tools - Articles Articles

How to Pasteurize Medium and Sterilize Containers and Tools

Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

To increase the survival rate for seedlings during germination, containers and tools should be sterilized and pasteurized or sterile soilless mixes should be used as growing medium. More
Transplanting Annuals into the Garden
Transplanting Annuals into the Garden - Articles Articles

Transplanting Annuals into the Garden

Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

When seedlings grow their first pair of identifiable true leaves, they are ready for transplanting. More
Supporting Herbaceous Plants in a Flower Garden
Supporting Herbaceous Plants in a Flower Garden - Articles Articles

Supporting Herbaceous Plants in a Flower Garden

Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

Some plant varieties that are compact, with strong stems do not require support to hold them upright, however, plants with heavy flowers or tall stems will require some assistance. More