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Photo credit Mary Ann Frazier, Penn State Extension.
Who are Our Pollinators? - Articles Articles

Who are Our Pollinators?

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D., Krishona Martinson

Approximately three quarters of our major food crops are pollinated. Here we will look at how wild bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. More
Small Striped Bee (Halictus). Photo USGS Bee Inventory.
What Can We Do to Encourage Native Bees? - Articles Articles

What Can We Do to Encourage Native Bees?

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D., Tianna DuPont

Pollinators need a diverse, abundant food source and a place to build their nests and rear their young. If we keep these two elements in mind we can encourage native bee populations. More
Varroa mite parasitizing bee. Thought to be one of the major factors contributing to hive losses. Photo Alex Wild.
Pollinator Declines - Articles Articles

Pollinator Declines

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D., Tianna DuPont

Domestic honey bees hives are down by 59% compared to 60 years ago with rapid declines over the last forty years. The populations of some native bee species may also be declining. More
Malting Barley in Pennsylvania
Malting Barley in Pennsylvania - Articles Articles

Malting Barley in Pennsylvania

Alyssa Collins, Ph.D., Austin Kirt, Gregory W. Roth, Ph.D.

Demand for locally sourced malted barley, for local craft beer, has led to the development of malt houses in PA and other states in our region. More
Bombus in pollinator cover crop plots. Photo credit Tianna DuPont.
Pesticides and Pollinators - Articles Articles

Pesticides and Pollinators

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D., Tianna DuPont

Researchers believe that long term honey bee declines are a result of a complex set of factors. More
Annuals will provide continuous blooms throughout the growing season.
Plant Life Cycles - Articles Articles

Plant Life Cycles

Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

Plants are classified by the number of growing seasons required to complete their life cycle. Generally, these groups are annuals, biennials, and perennials. More
Nomenclature
Nomenclature - Articles Articles

Nomenclature

Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

Plants may be known by different common names, and one name may refer to various plants within several species. Use the scientific or botanical name to properly identify plant material. More
Pruning Herbaceous Plants
Pruning Herbaceous Plants - Articles Articles

Pruning Herbaceous Plants

Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

A certain amount of maintenance is needed to keep a garden looking its best. This minimal effort may mean the difference between a garden that is mediocre and one that evokes many compliments. More
How to Pasteurize Medium and Sterilize Containers and Tools
How to Pasteurize Medium and Sterilize Containers and Tools - Articles Articles

How to Pasteurize Medium and Sterilize Containers and Tools

Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

To increase the survival rate for seedlings during germination, containers and tools should be sterilized and pasteurized or sterile soilless mixes should be used as growing medium. More
Transplanting Annuals into the Garden
Transplanting Annuals into the Garden - Articles Articles

Transplanting Annuals into the Garden

Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

When seedlings grow their first pair of identifiable true leaves, they are ready for transplanting. More
Supporting Herbaceous Plants in a Flower Garden
Supporting Herbaceous Plants in a Flower Garden - Articles Articles

Supporting Herbaceous Plants in a Flower Garden

Jim Sellmer, Ph.D., Kathy Kelley, Ph.D., Phyllis Lamont

Some plant varieties that are compact, with strong stems do not require support to hold them upright, however, plants with heavy flowers or tall stems will require some assistance. More