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Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
A number of insect and mite pests have developed varying levels of resistance to some insecticidal chemistries over the years, including the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Tiny, black, spherical structures are produced on stalks above the white mold. Each of these contains thousands of spores that are released to float in the air. Photo by K. Peter.
Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Rhizopus rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans, can be very destructive to harvested fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Source: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, has become a major indirect pest of tart cherries. More
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities - Articles Articles
Industry challenges have led to recent transitions of orchards to high density production systems. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
A wind machine mixes the warmer air from the upper portions of the inversion layer with the colder air near the ground, raising air temperatures around the trees by a few degrees. Photo: Tara Baugher
Orchard Frost - Protection with Wind Machines - Articles Articles
Susceptibility to frost damage depends on a tree’s stage of development, variety, and location, but certain preventative measures can be taken. More
Orchard Weed Control - Fall Herbicide Applications
Orchard Weed Control - Fall Herbicide Applications - Articles Articles
For years we have all heard the landscape green industry say that "fall is for planting". As orchardists, we should consider that fall is a very good time for applying weed control materials. More
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Effect of Pruning
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Effect of Pruning - Articles Articles
When there is a sudden drop in temperature the trees most injured are those that lack adequate vigor, those that were too vigorous, and those that had been pruned before the cold event. More
Brown rot can cause shoot blight. (Photo: K. Peter)
Tree Fruit Diseases - Brown Rot, Fire Blight, Root Rots - Articles Articles
With peach season in full swing, mid-season management strategies are reviewed. More
Examples of stages of fruit bud development: top left - apple tight cluster; top right - apple first bloom; lower left - sweet cherry first white; lower right - peach pink.
Orchard Frost - Critical Temperatures for Various Fruits - Articles Articles
The temperature at which fruit buds are injured depends primarily on their stage of development. More
Pruning just before a cold snap increases susceptibility to injury.
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Pruning Effects - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Pruning Effects

Rich Marini, Ph.D., James Schupp, Ph.D.

Fruit trees begin to go dormant in response to shortening day length in the fall. Exposure to freezing temperatures accelerates the onset of dormancy. More
Plum Pox Virus Success Story
Plum Pox Virus Success Story - Articles Articles

Plum Pox Virus Success Story

John Halbrendt, Ph.D.

The successful eradication of PPV could not have been achieved without the cooperation of fruit growers, PDA, USDA/APHIS, USDA/ARS, Penn State, and homeowners. More
Stone Fruit Disease - Prunus Stem Pitting
Stone Fruit Disease - Prunus Stem Pitting - Articles Articles
Prunus stem pitting, caused by the tomato ringspot virus, is an important disease of all stone fruits. It is also called prune brownline and constriction disease. More
Dagger Nematode (Xiphinema spp.). Photo courtesy N.C. State University.
Nematodes - Preventing Problems in Deciduous Fruit Trees - Articles Articles
Nematodes reduce tree vigor and crop yields by parasitizing tree roots; they predispose trees to disease, reduce winter hardiness, and transmit viruses. More
Source: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org
Stone Fruit Disease - Powdery Mildew of Cherry and Plum - Articles Articles
The disease is caused by Podosphaeria oxyacanthae, one of the common species of the powdery mildew group of fungi. More
Source: Mike Schomaker, Colorado State Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Stone Fruit Disease - Plum Pockets - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Plum Pockets

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

In the northeastern United States, the most important disease affecting American-type plums is known as plum pockets, or bladder plum. It is caused by Taphrina communis. More
Source: Joseph OBrien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Plum Disease - Plum Leaf Spot - Articles Articles

Plum Disease - Plum Leaf Spot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Leaf spot of plums and prune-type plums is caused by the fungus Coccomyces prunophorae. More
Source: Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Disease - Phytophthora Collar, Crown and Root Rots - Articles Articles
Phytophthora collar, crown, and root rots, Phytophthora cactorum, continue to be a major cause of tree death in Pennsylvania orchards. These rots can affect both pome and stone fruit. More
In recognition of their work in eradicating Plum Pox Virus, research and industry partners received a USDA award. Pictured is Jim Lerew, one of the local growers recognized in the ceremony.
Plum Pox Eradication in PA - A Blueprint for Future Plant Disease Outbreaks - Articles Articles
In an increasingly global society, the transmission of viruses and various diseases has been facilitated through our own technologies. More
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