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Updated Insecticide Recommendations for Spotted Lanternfly on Tree Fruit
Updated Insecticide Recommendations for Spotted Lanternfly on Tree Fruit - Articles Articles
Insecticide recommendations for spotted lanternfly in tree fruit, updated August 2018. More
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
A number of insect and mite pests have developed varying levels of resistance to some insecticidal chemistries over the years, including the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Female spotted lanternfly and her egg mass. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, an invasive plant hopper was first detected in Pennsylvania in the fall of 2014. More
Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
Orchard Nutrition: Determining Orchard Fertility Needs - Articles Articles
The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Growers dependent on honey bees must constantly maintain a delicate balance between protecting their crops from pests and pathogens and protecting pollinators.
Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

European honey bees are the primary managed pollinators in orchards because their abundance can be managed from year to year. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Top dominant trees in an older orchard. Photo: Rob Crasswellar, Penn State
Home Gardening: Pruning to Renovate Old Fruit Trees - Articles Articles

Home Gardening: Pruning to Renovate Old Fruit Trees

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Rich Marini, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Timothy Elkner

Use judicious pruning to renovate older fruit trees in your home landscape. More
Source: Cheryl Moorehead, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Pear Slug - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Pear Slug

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The pear slug, Caliroa cerasi, resembles a slug in appearance, but it is actually a sawfly. More
Young aphids congregate closely around the stem mother. This habit soon causes the death of the infested leaves and the consequent migration of the aphids. Photo by G. Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Rosy Apple Aphid - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Rosy Apple Aphid

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea, has been a major pest of apple trees since the end of the nineteenth century. More
Oriental fruit moth are gray, with a wing spread of ¼ inch; the wings are gray with dark markings. Photo by G. Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Oriental Fruit Moth - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Oriental Fruit Moth

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is a pest of most stone and pome fruits. In pome fruits, its appearance and injury is similar to that of the codling moth and lesser appleworm. More
Several narrow white stripes run longitudinally along the top of the body, while a slightly wider, more distinct white line runs along each side. Photo by Greg Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Green Fruitworm - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Green Fruitworm

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The speckled green fruitworm, Orthosia hibisci, is the most common of several green fruitworm pests occurring in commercial orchards. More
The codling moth wing is generally a darker shade of gray near the base, with a dark patch containing coppery scales near the inside wing tip. Photo by G. Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Codling Moth - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Codling Moth

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was introduced from Europe in colonial times and now occurs throughout North America as well as most of the world, wherever apples are grown. More
Source: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, has become a major indirect pest of tart cherries. More
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Blister mites become active at bud break, migrate to the tender, new leaves, and burrow beneath the epidermis of the undersides of leaves to feed. This results in a gall, or blister, in which the eggs are laid. Photo by G. Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Mite Pests - Pear Blister Mite and Pear Rust Mite - Articles Articles
Pearleaf blister mite, Phytoptus pyri, and pear rust mite, Epitrimerus pyri, are similar species, virtually invisible to the naked eye, that often are common on unsprayed trees. More
Source: Bradley Higbee, Paramount Farming, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Mullein Plant Bug - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Mullein Plant Bug

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Mullein plant bug, Campylomma verbasci, is a “two-edged sword” of the insect world. More
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities - Articles Articles
Industry challenges have led to recent transitions of orchards to high density production systems. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
Disease, Insect/Mite, and PGR Toolbox: Reentry and Preharvest Intervals
Disease, Insect/Mite, and PGR Toolbox: Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Tree Fruit Bloom Stages - Pear
Tree Fruit Bloom Stages - Pear - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Bloom Stages - Pear

Tara Baugher, Edwin Winzeler

Stages of pear fruit bud development. More
A wind machine mixes the warmer air from the upper portions of the inversion layer with the colder air near the ground, raising air temperatures around the trees by a few degrees. Photo: Tara Baugher
Orchard Frost - Protection with Wind Machines - Articles Articles
Susceptibility to frost damage depends on a tree’s stage of development, variety, and location, but certain preventative measures can be taken. More
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