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Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
A number of insect and mite pests have developed varying levels of resistance to some insecticidal chemistries over the years, including the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Female spotted lanternfly and her egg mass. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, an invasive plant hopper was first detected in Pennsylvania in the fall of 2014. More
Tiny, black, spherical structures are produced on stalks above the white mold. Each of these contains thousands of spores that are released to float in the air. Photo by K. Peter.
Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Rhizopus rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans, can be very destructive to harvested fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Collect mid-shoot leaves on current season’s growth.
Orchard Nutrition - Sample for Foliar Analysis Mid-July to August - Articles Articles
Plant tissue analysis is used to directly measure the amount of nutrients in fruit trees, and for established perennial crops, is usually a better indicator of nutrient status than a soil test. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Soil testing throughout the project helps determine if any soil amendments are needed. Photo: Kristi Kraft
Start Farming: Establishing Farmers Prepare Fields for Fruit Trees - Articles Articles
"Models for the Future" demonstration plots showcase best management practices for producers in the establishing years of developing their farm enterprises. More
Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan
Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan - Articles Articles

Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Applying herbicides in the fall is key to successful weed management. The application can also be part of an integrated management approach for other orchard pests like cat facing insects and rodents. More
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Pear Thrips - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Pear Thrips

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens, was introduced early this century, probably from Europe. More
Tree Fruit Insect Pests - Yellow Jackets and Hornets
Tree Fruit Insect Pests - Yellow Jackets and Hornets - Articles Articles
While greater opportunities for biological control of some apple pests exist in today's orchards, we are seeing a greater diversity of generalist predators. More
Pine vole injury is found on the below-ground portions of a tree.
Orchard Wildlife Management: Preventing Vole Damage - Articles Articles

Orchard Wildlife Management: Preventing Vole Damage

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher

One of the last tasks in getting orchards ready for winter is planning your strategy to control voles and prevent their damage. More
Source: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, has become a major indirect pest of tart cherries. More
Orchard Biological Control - Protecting Mite and Aphid Predators
Orchard Biological Control - Protecting Mite and Aphid Predators - Articles Articles
The biological control potential of the vast majority of beneficial arthropods is not realized unless only pesticides that are selective and nontoxic to these arthropods are used. More
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Large Plastic Delta trap with sticky liner baited with Oriental fruit moth sex pheromone lure
Orchard IPM - Insect Monitoring - Articles Articles

Orchard IPM - Insect Monitoring

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Monitoring insect pests continues to be one of the pillars of integrated pest management in Pennsylvania orchards. More
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities - Articles Articles
Industry challenges have led to recent transitions of orchards to high density production systems. More
Orchard Production Systems - Apple Blueprint
Orchard Production Systems - Apple Blueprint - Articles Articles

Orchard Production Systems - Apple Blueprint

James Schupp, Ph.D., Tara Baugher

Many cultural practices and pest control methods utilized in the past require abundant labor resources to be profitable, and these no longer exist in today’s agricultural community. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
Summer shearing of peach trees can reduce fruit size and soluble solids, but if vigorous vegetative shoots that shade the tree interior are removed by hand pruning by early July, quality shoots in the tree interior can be maintained.
Fruit Tree Pruning - Summer Pruning Cautions - Articles Articles
Summer pruning is a vague term and simply refers to the time of year pruning is performed (when trees have foliage) and does not describe the type of pruning cuts. More
Peach Disorders - Skin Damage
Peach Disorders - Skin Damage - Articles Articles

Peach Disorders - Skin Damage

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Skin damage has been a problem in packed stone fruit in some years but it has been somewhat erratic here in PA. More
Photo: Amy Tabb
Orchard Precision - Sensor Technologies and Weather Modeling - Articles Articles

Orchard Precision - Sensor Technologies and Weather Modeling

James Schupp, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Sensor and imaging technologies, along with weather modeling, are being investigated for applications in intensive orchard systems. More
Disease, Insect/Mite, and PGR Toolbox: Reentry and Preharvest Intervals
Disease, Insect/Mite, and PGR Toolbox: Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
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