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Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Female spotted lanternfly and her egg mass. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, an invasive plant hopper was first detected in Pennsylvania in the fall of 2014. More
Tiny, black, spherical structures are produced on stalks above the white mold. Each of these contains thousands of spores that are released to float in the air. Photo by K. Peter.
Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Rhizopus rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans, can be very destructive to harvested fruit. More
Source: Mary Ann Hansen, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org
Apple Disease - Blossom End Rot - Articles Articles

Apple Disease - Blossom End Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Blossom end rot of apple, is caused by various fungi (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrysphaeria obtusa) just before or during petal fall. More
Photo: Rivertowne Brewing, Export, PA
Beer and Spirits: Supplying the Craft Beverage Boom with Local Ingredients - Articles Articles

Beer and Spirits: Supplying the Craft Beverage Boom with Local Ingredients

Maria L Graziani, MBA, Molly Berntsen, Heather E. Manzo, Rachel Hair, Thy Le An Ngo

Penn State Extension conducted research in 2017 to assess current and future production levels and supply chain actors and identify future potential for local and regional sourcing of ingredients More
Botrytis bunch rot. Photo by W.J. Moller
Botrytis Bunch Rot: Winemaking Implications and Considerations - Articles Articles
This article will review the implications of molds and fruit rots on wine composition and quality and discuss remedial actions in the winery. More
Apple Top-Working: Managing the New Grafts
Apple Top-Working: Managing the New Grafts - Articles Articles
Top-working is the name for grafting established trees to another variety. The existing tree, the “stock”, is cut back, leaving just one or two limbs (nurse limbs) to supply the tree with energy. More
A multi-tier shake-and-catch harvesting platform (WSU design by Dr. He and team). Photo: Long He, Penn State
Orchard Automation - Engineering Opportunities for Fruit Growers - Articles Articles
Fruit growers have many challenges related to the labor-intensive needs of tree fruit production and increasing global competition. Fortunately, new precision management and automation technologies are on the horizon. More
Photo 1. Blueberry blossom showing the characteristic flowers of this plant. Note that the flowers are closed, bell-shaped and pendant. Photo credit: Nicole Castle, contributed to Plant Village.
Who Pollinates Pennsylvania Blueberry Plants? - Articles Articles

Who Pollinates Pennsylvania Blueberry Plants?

Margarita López-Uribe, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D., Kristal Watrous, Nolan Amon

Blueberries (genus Vaccinium) are a high-value crop in Pennsylvania and the United States, with an estimated value of at least $825 million to the US economy in 2014. More
Close-up of fringetree flowers which have some fragrance to them. Photo: Mike Masiuk, Penn State
Spring Floral Display: Chionanthus Virginicus, White Fringetree - Articles Articles
Although the common name, white fringetree, alludes to a tree, it is often treated as a large shrub in the landscape, reaching a range of anywhere from 12 to 20 feet. More
Frost-induced russet also known as Frost Ring. Photo: Jim Schupp, Penn State
Apple Skin Disorders: Scarf Skin and Russet - Articles Articles
Scarf skin and russet are skin defects that can diminish the market value of fresh fruit. More
Dr. Rob Crassweller, second from right, organizes an apple variety sampling. Photo: Tara Baugher, Penn State
Apple Variety Improvement: A Look at the Past, Present and Future - Articles Articles
During the 2018 Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Dr. Rob Crassweller organized an apple variety showcase. More
Peach Crop Load Management: Blossom Thinning and Fruit Size
Peach Crop Load Management: Blossom Thinning and Fruit Size - Articles Articles

Peach Crop Load Management: Blossom Thinning and Fruit Size

Tara Baugher, James Schupp, Ph.D., Paul Heinemann, Ph.D.

Many growers are hesitant to thin peaches at bloom because they fear the chance of bud loss to frost at this early stage of development. More
Freeze damage on Concord. Photo: Michela Centinari, Penn State
Understanding and Preventing Spring Frost and Freeze Damage - Articles Articles
When early spring warming is followed by below freezing temperatures, grape growers keep their fingers crossed hoping to escape freeze injury. More
Mulching Landscape Trees
Mulching Landscape Trees - Articles Articles

Mulching Landscape Trees

David R. Jackson

Mulches are materials placed over the soil surface to enhance landscape beauty, improve soil conditions, protect plants from foot traffic and lawn equipment, and suppress weeds. More
Spotted lanternflies captured on a sticky band. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Spotted Lanternfly Management: Placing Sticky Bands on Trees - Articles Articles
This article summarizes one method of capturing and killing spotted lanternfly (SLF): placing sticky bands on trees. More
Photo 1. Two type of bee hotels for stem nesters: (left) Box with cardboard straws and (right) wooden block with drilled holes. Photo credit: Margarita López-Uribe, Penn State
Spring Bees: Who Are They and Where Do They Live? - Articles Articles

Spring Bees: Who Are They and Where Do They Live?

Margarita López-Uribe, Ph.D.

While spring is the beginning of the beekeeping season, early blooming plants not only feed honey bees but also hundreds of native solitary bee species that emerge at around the same time. More
Tree Fruit Budget Tools
Tree Fruit Budget Tools - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Budget Tools

Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D., Lynn Kime

Every two years the faculty and extension personnel update the Penn State Tree Fruit Production Guide. Within the Guide are budgets for tree fruit production. More
Photo: Bill Lamont, Penn State
Pumpkin Cultivar Trial Results - Articles Articles

Pumpkin Cultivar Trial Results

Elsa Sanchez, Ph.D., Timothy Elkner, Robert Pollock, Tom Butzler, William Lamont, Jr., Ph.D.

We evaluated twenty-one pumpkin cultivars in 2016 and 2017. More
Enzymatic cell wall breakdown is an irreversible process. Once the fruit stems loosen, there is no way to strengthen them up! Stop drops are plant growth regulators that interfere with the enzymatic breakdown of the cell walls in the abscission zone.
Apple PGRs: Preharvest Drop Control - Articles Articles
As apples mature they begin to produce large amounts of the ripening hormone, ethylene. One of the ripening processes stimulated by ethylene is stem loosening. More
Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
Orchard Nutrition: Determining Orchard Fertility Needs - Articles Articles
The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Growers dependent on honey bees must constantly maintain a delicate balance between protecting their crops from pests and pathogens and protecting pollinators.
Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

European honey bees are the primary managed pollinators in orchards because their abundance can be managed from year to year. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More