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Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
A number of insect and mite pests have developed varying levels of resistance to some insecticidal chemistries over the years, including the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Female spotted lanternfly and her egg mass. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, an invasive plant hopper was first detected in Pennsylvania in the fall of 2014. More
Tiny, black, spherical structures are produced on stalks above the white mold. Each of these contains thousands of spores that are released to float in the air. Photo by K. Peter.
Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Rhizopus rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans, can be very destructive to harvested fruit. More
Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
Orchard Nutrition: Determining Orchard Fertility Needs - Articles Articles
The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Growers dependent on honey bees must constantly maintain a delicate balance between protecting their crops from pests and pathogens and protecting pollinators.
Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

European honey bees are the primary managed pollinators in orchards because their abundance can be managed from year to year. More
The nearer the pollinizer to the producing tree, the better distribution by the bees of pollen to all blossoms. Crabapples are often used as pollinizers.
Orchard Pollination: Pollinizers, Pollinators and Weather - Articles Articles
Pollination involves the integration of several biological and physical factors, including cultivar compatibility, synchronous blooming, insects, and proper weather conditions. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Soil testing throughout the project helps determine if any soil amendments are needed. Photo: Kristi Kraft
Start Farming: Establishing Farmers Prepare Fields for Fruit Trees - Articles Articles
"Models for the Future" demonstration plots showcase best management practices for producers in the establishing years of developing their farm enterprises. More
Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan
Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan - Articles Articles

Orchard Weed Control - Part of an IPM Plan

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Applying herbicides in the fall is key to successful weed management. The application can also be part of an integrated management approach for other orchard pests like cat facing insects and rodents. More
Source: Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Lesser Peachtree Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Lesser Peachtree Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes, is an important pest in peach and cherry orchards throughout Pennsylvania and surrounding states. More
Tree Fruit Insect Pests - Yellow Jackets and Hornets
Tree Fruit Insect Pests - Yellow Jackets and Hornets - Articles Articles
While greater opportunities for biological control of some apple pests exist in today's orchards, we are seeing a greater diversity of generalist predators. More
Several narrow white stripes run longitudinally along the top of the body, while a slightly wider, more distinct white line runs along each side. Photo by Greg Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Green Fruitworm - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Green Fruitworm

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The speckled green fruitworm, Orthosia hibisci, is the most common of several green fruitworm pests occurring in commercial orchards. More
Pine vole injury is found on the below-ground portions of a tree.
Orchard Wildlife Management: Preventing Vole Damage - Articles Articles

Orchard Wildlife Management: Preventing Vole Damage

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher

One of the last tasks in getting orchards ready for winter is planning your strategy to control voles and prevent their damage. More
Protect tart cherries during bloom to prevent cherry leaf spot infection.
Tree Fruit Diseases - Spring Control Strategies - Articles Articles
May is the battleground month for disease management: be on alert for apple scab, fire blight, powdery mildew, rust, cherry leaf spot, brown rot, and bacterial spot infection conditions. More
Source: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Black Cherry Aphid - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Black Cherry Aphid

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The black cherry aphid, Myzus cerasi, is the most common aphid attacking cherries, primarily sweet cherries, in most parts of North America. More
Source: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, has become a major indirect pest of tart cherries. More
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Large Plastic Delta trap with sticky liner baited with Oriental fruit moth sex pheromone lure
Orchard IPM - Insect Monitoring - Articles Articles

Orchard IPM - Insect Monitoring

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Monitoring insect pests continues to be one of the pillars of integrated pest management in Pennsylvania orchards. More
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities - Articles Articles
Industry challenges have led to recent transitions of orchards to high density production systems. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
Fruit Tree Bloom Stages - Sweet Cherry
Fruit Tree Bloom Stages - Sweet Cherry - Articles Articles
Stages of sweet cherry fruit bud development. More
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