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Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
A number of insect and mite pests have developed varying levels of resistance to some insecticidal chemistries over the years, including the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Female spotted lanternfly and her egg mass. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, an invasive plant hopper was first detected in Pennsylvania in the fall of 2014. More
Tiny, black, spherical structures are produced on stalks above the white mold. Each of these contains thousands of spores that are released to float in the air. Photo by K. Peter.
Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot - Articles Articles

Stone Fruit Disease - Rhizopus Rot

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Rhizopus rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans, can be very destructive to harvested fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Growers dependent on honey bees must constantly maintain a delicate balance between protecting their crops from pests and pathogens and protecting pollinators.
Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Honey Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

European honey bees are the primary managed pollinators in orchards because their abundance can be managed from year to year. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Source: Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Lesser Peachtree Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Lesser Peachtree Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes, is an important pest in peach and cherry orchards throughout Pennsylvania and surrounding states. More
Several narrow white stripes run longitudinally along the top of the body, while a slightly wider, more distinct white line runs along each side. Photo by Greg Krawczyk.
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Green Fruitworm - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Green Fruitworm

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The speckled green fruitworm, Orthosia hibisci, is the most common of several green fruitworm pests occurring in commercial orchards. More
Protect tart cherries during bloom to prevent cherry leaf spot infection.
Tree Fruit Diseases - Spring Control Strategies - Articles Articles
May is the battleground month for disease management: be on alert for apple scab, fire blight, powdery mildew, rust, cherry leaf spot, brown rot, and bacterial spot infection conditions. More
Source: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Black Cherry Aphid - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Black Cherry Aphid

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The black cherry aphid, Myzus cerasi, is the most common aphid attacking cherries, primarily sweet cherries, in most parts of North America. More
Source: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - American Plum Borer

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis, has become a major indirect pest of tart cherries. More
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities - Articles Articles
Industry challenges have led to recent transitions of orchards to high density production systems. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
Fruit Tree Bloom Stages - Sweet Cherry
Fruit Tree Bloom Stages - Sweet Cherry - Articles Articles
Stages of sweet cherry fruit bud development. More
Disease, Insect/Mite, and PGR Toolbox: Reentry and Preharvest Intervals
Disease, Insect/Mite, and PGR Toolbox: Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Training systems for sweet cherries are described in new on-line resources.
Cherry Tree Training Systems - A Downloadable Guide - Articles Articles
A new free downloadable guide describes the natural growth habit of cherry trees, options for rootstocks that can affect tree growth and precocity, pruning and training techniques for production. More
A wind machine mixes the warmer air from the upper portions of the inversion layer with the colder air near the ground, raising air temperatures around the trees by a few degrees. Photo: Tara Baugher
Orchard Frost - Protection with Wind Machines - Articles Articles
Susceptibility to frost damage depends on a tree’s stage of development, variety, and location, but certain preventative measures can be taken. More
Orchard Weed Control - Fall Herbicide Applications
Orchard Weed Control - Fall Herbicide Applications - Articles Articles
For years we have all heard the landscape green industry say that "fall is for planting". As orchardists, we should consider that fall is a very good time for applying weed control materials. More
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Effect of Pruning
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Effect of Pruning - Articles Articles
When there is a sudden drop in temperature the trees most injured are those that lack adequate vigor, those that were too vigorous, and those that had been pruned before the cold event. More
Examples of stages of fruit bud development: top left - apple tight cluster; top right - apple first bloom; lower left - sweet cherry first white; lower right - peach pink.
Orchard Frost - Critical Temperatures for Various Fruits - Articles Articles
The temperature at which fruit buds are injured depends primarily on their stage of development. More
Pruning just before a cold snap increases susceptibility to injury.
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Pruning Effects - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Pruning Effects

Rich Marini, Ph.D., James Schupp, Ph.D.

Fruit trees begin to go dormant in response to shortening day length in the fall. Exposure to freezing temperatures accelerates the onset of dormancy. More
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