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Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Insect and Mite Control Toolbox - Pesticide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
A number of insect and mite pests have developed varying levels of resistance to some insecticidal chemistries over the years, including the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. More
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management
Tree Fruit Disease Toolbox - Fungicide Resistance Management - Articles Articles
Resistance has sometimes resulted in pest-management-program failures. Below are presented tactics to help delay resistance to fungicides. More
Female spotted lanternfly and her egg mass. Photo: Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State
Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Insect Pest - Spotted Lanternfly

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, an invasive plant hopper was first detected in Pennsylvania in the fall of 2014. More
Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
Orchard Nutrition: Determining Orchard Fertility Needs - Articles Articles
The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination: Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination: Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms on peach, which can be prevented by leaf analysis and block-specific fertilization.
Orchard Nutrition: An Overview - Articles Articles

Orchard Nutrition: An Overview

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Nutritional requirements of fruit trees differ from those of agronomic crops, cover crops, and orchard sod. More
Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
Orchard Weed Control - Protection of Tree Trunks - Articles Articles
Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk. More
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides
Reentry and Preharvest Intervals - Antibiotics and Fungicides - Articles Articles
Listed below are pesticides used on tree fruits. Not all materials listed here are suggested in the spray schedules. More
Pesticidas y la Salud de los Polinizadores
Pesticidas y la Salud de los Polinizadores - Articles Articles

Pesticidas y la Salud de los Polinizadores

Sharon I Gripp, Héctor Núñez Contreras

Penn State está a la vanguardia en asuntos relacionados con la salud de los polinizadores. More
Large Plastic Delta trap with sticky liner baited with Oriental fruit moth sex pheromone lure
Orchard IPM - Insect Monitoring - Articles Articles

Orchard IPM - Insect Monitoring

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

Monitoring insect pests continues to be one of the pillars of integrated pest management in Pennsylvania orchards. More
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities
Orchard Production Systems - Transition to Higher Tree Densities - Articles Articles
Industry challenges have led to recent transitions of orchards to high density production systems. More
Fruit Production - Technical References
Fruit Production - Technical References - Articles Articles

Fruit Production - Technical References

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

There are a number of sources of fruit production information available depending upon the level of knowledge desired. More
Photo by M. Seetin.
Pollinators and Pesticide Sprays during Bloom in Fruit Plantings - Articles Articles

Pollinators and Pesticide Sprays during Bloom in Fruit Plantings

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D., Kathy Demchak, Ed Rajotte, Ph.D., Tara Baugher

Use of pesticides during bloom is a complicated problem with the solutions relying on understanding the detailed relationships among chemicals, pollinators and pest management needs. More
A wind machine mixes the warmer air from the upper portions of the inversion layer with the colder air near the ground, raising air temperatures around the trees by a few degrees. Photo: Tara Baugher
Orchard Frost - Protection with Wind Machines - Articles Articles
Susceptibility to frost damage depends on a tree’s stage of development, variety, and location, but certain preventative measures can be taken. More
Orchard Weed Control - Fall Herbicide Applications
Orchard Weed Control - Fall Herbicide Applications - Articles Articles
For years we have all heard the landscape green industry say that "fall is for planting". As orchardists, we should consider that fall is a very good time for applying weed control materials. More
The ground cover in an orchard must be managed just as the tree canopy is managed. The orchard floor can be divided into two distinct areas: the area between the tree rows, and the area directly underneath the trees.
Orchard Establishment - Row Middle and Tree Row - Articles Articles
The orchard floor can be divided into two distinct areas: the area between the tree rows (generally planted with a permanent cover crop), and the area directly underneath the trees. More
Typical site arrangements. A, C - warm locations; B, G - top may be too cold in winter; D, F - susceptible to spring frosts; E - can still be frosty, but the woods act as a windbreak.
Orchard Establishment - Site Selection and Preparation - Articles Articles
The success of an orchard is only as good as the planning and site preparation that go into it. This is a simple maxim, but one that is often overlooked by novice and experienced grower alike. More
Examples of stages of fruit bud development: top left - apple tight cluster; top right - apple first bloom; lower left - sweet cherry first white; lower right - peach pink.
Orchard Frost - Critical Temperatures for Various Fruits - Articles Articles
The temperature at which fruit buds are injured depends primarily on their stage of development. More
Pruning just before a cold snap increases susceptibility to injury.
Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Pruning Effects - Articles Articles

Tree Fruit Cold Hardiness - Pruning Effects

Rich Marini, Ph.D., James Schupp, Ph.D.

Fruit trees begin to go dormant in response to shortening day length in the fall. Exposure to freezing temperatures accelerates the onset of dormancy. More
Stone Fruit Disease - Prunus Stem Pitting
Stone Fruit Disease - Prunus Stem Pitting - Articles Articles
Prunus stem pitting, caused by the tomato ringspot virus, is an important disease of all stone fruits. It is also called prune brownline and constriction disease. More
Dagger Nematode (Xiphinema spp.). Photo courtesy N.C. State University.
Nematodes - Preventing Problems in Deciduous Fruit Trees - Articles Articles
Nematodes reduce tree vigor and crop yields by parasitizing tree roots; they predispose trees to disease, reduce winter hardiness, and transmit viruses. More
Source: William M. Brown Jr., Bugwood.org
Peach Disease - Powdery Mildew of Peach, Nectarine, and Apricot - Articles Articles
Powdery mildew, Sphaerotheca pannosa, sometimes called rose mildew (it affects some woody ornamentals), is not often serious. More
Source: Bugwood.org
Tree Fruit Disease - Phytophthora Collar, Crown and Root Rots - Articles Articles
Phytophthora collar, crown, and root rots, Phytophthora cactorum, continue to be a major cause of tree death in Pennsylvania orchards. These rots can affect both pome and stone fruit. More
Although the fruits remain susceptible through harvest, it is usually only infections that occur during the shuck split to pit hardening stage of development that have an opportunity to show symptoms at harvest. Photo by K. Peter.
Peach Disease - Scab - Articles Articles

Peach Disease - Scab

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Peach scab, Cladosporium carpophilum, is an important disease in warm, humid peach-producing areas of the world. More
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