This disease is not known to affect red or purple raspberries. This is a systemic disease. Once the plant is infected, the entire plant is infected for life.
The diagnostic symptoms of orange rust occur early in the spring when the new shoots begin their growth. The new leaves are stunted, deformed, and pale green or yellowish. Waxy blisters cover the undersides of the leaves. These blisters later become bright orange and powdery, the characteristic that gives the disease its name "orange rust." Canes produced on the diseased plants may appear healthy. However, these infected canes are usually spineless and do not produce blossoms. The diagnostic orange pustules will be produced on the leaves of these canes the following spring. Infected plants generally take on a bushy appearance since many short, upright shoots arise from one bud.
Orange rust is caused by two fungi: Arthuriomyces peckianus and Gymnoconia nitens. The disease occurs only on black raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, and possibly purple raspberries. The two fungi that cause the disease are very similar. The disease is not known to affect red raspberries. The fungus is systemic and overwinters in diseased roots and canes. Orange rust generally is favored by cool wet conditions. When the orange spore pustules mature and break open in June or July, the spores are spread to other plants by the wind. The fungus enters the plant through the leaves and grows internally through the canes, crowns, and roots. Newly infected plants seldom show symptoms until the following spring.
Many initial problems in the bramble planting can be prevented by starting with certified, disease-free nursery stock. Inspect all plants in the spring for symptoms of infection. As soon as symptoms of orange rust are detected, remove the entire plant. Remove and destroy all wild blackberries and raspberries in the area that might serve as a source of disease. Any practice that speeds the drying of foliage, such as keeping plantings weeded and rows narrowed back, will assist in control since spores need a relatively long period of leaf wetness in order to be able to germinate and penetrate the leaves in the spring. Avoid tipping canes in the fall because transporting inoculum on hands is easy during this operation. No chemical control is known for this disease. Some blackberries, specifically Ebony King, Eldorado, and Raven, are reported to exhibit resistance. If fungicides are used, they should be applied from the time orange pustules are first seen until the leaves on which they were produced die and dry up, and then again during late summer or fall when temperatures cool. Refer to Table 7.5 for pesticide recommendations.
The important insects and diseases to be controlled, except for viruses, are listed in the right-hand column of this spray schedule. Always consult the label before making pesticide applications. Labels vary greatly among commercial products of the same material. It is important to refer to the label for the best timing and application rates when applying pesticides. Also read the text for information on cultural practices to minimize the application of pesticides. Due to a wide array of various products containing the same active ingredient, for insecticide recommendations, when appropriate, the active ingredient is listed instead of the name of the formulated product.
Table 7.5. Pesticide recommendations for brambles. (Follow all instructions and application rates listed on pesticide labels.
|Time to Spray||Suggested Materials||Pests to be Controlled|
|Dormant (blackberries) - before buds open||Lime sulfur||Anthracnose, cane blight, powdery mildew, rust|
|Delayed Dormant - just as buds begin to open||Lime sulfur||Anthracnose; spur blight on raspberries; powdery mildew, rust, and cane blight on blackberries|
|New shoots 8 inches long||Sulfur; Malathion; Esvenvalerate||Anthracnose; Botrytis, cane blight, and spur blight on raspberries; fruit worms; plant bugs|
|Petal Fall||Sulfur; Carbaryl plus Rotenone or Pyrethrum||Anthracnose; Botrytis, cane blight, and spur blight on raspberries; fruit worms; rose chafer; aphids; mites; plant bugs|
|Postharvest||Malathion plus Carbaryl||Aphids, if present; Japanese beetles|