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The following table summarizes a variety of design information or suggestions useful when planning calf and heifer housing systems for Holstein dairy cattle. Due to variations in management goals, herd size, and calvings this information represents a starting point in the design process. You may not be able to meet all suggestions in any particular design. When organizing groups consider feeding requirements, management needs, and especially size and age variation among animals in the same group. As a general rule of thumb smaller group sizes increase ease of observing and identifying animals that require special attention. Groups of animals over 6 months of age may be organized differently based on variations in herd size and calving frequency.
Source: 2008. Graves, R. E., J. T. Tyson, D. F. McFarland, T. H. Wilson. Penn State Housing Plans for Calves and Heifers, NRAES‐201. Page 278.
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