Any pesticide can be poisonous or toxic if absorbed in excessive amounts. Pesticides can cause skin or eye damage (topical effects) and can also induce allergic responses. However, if used according to label directions and with the proper personal protective equipment (PPE), pesticides can be used safely. For this reason, people who use pesticides or regularly come in contact with them must understand the relative toxicity and the potential health effects of the products they use. The risk of exposure to pesticides can be illustrated with the following simple equation:
Hazard of Pesticide Use = Toxicity x Actual Exposure
Toxicity is a measure of the ability of a pesticide to cause injury, which is a property of the chemical itself. Pesticide toxicity is determined by exposing test animals to different dosages of the active ingredient. Tests are also done with each different formulation of the product (for example, liquids, dusts, and granulars). By understanding the difference in toxicity levels of pesticides, a user can minimize the potential hazard by selecting the pesticide with the lowest toxicity that will control the pest.
Applicators may have little or no control over the availability of low-toxicity products or the toxicity of specific formulated products. However, exposure can be significantly reduced or nearly eliminated by using PPE. For example, over 90 percent of all pesticide exposure comes from dermal exposure, primarily to the hands and forearms. By wearing a pair of chemical-resistant gloves, this exposure can be reduced at least 90 percent. Therefore, by wearing the correct PPE, the hazard of pesticide use can be reduced to an insignificant level for the applicator.
Acute Toxicity and Acute Effects
Acute toxicity of a pesticide refers to the chemical's ability to cause injury to a person or animal from a single exposure, generally of short duration.
The four routes of exposure are dermal (skin), inhalation (lungs), oral (mouth), and eyes. Acute toxicity is determined by examining the dermal toxicity, inhalation toxicity, and oral toxicity of test animals. In addition, eye and skin irritation is also examined.
Acute toxicity is usually expressed as LD50 (lethal dose 50) or LC50 (lethal concentration 50). This is the amount or concentration of a toxicant required to kill 50 percent of a test population of animals under a standard set of conditions. LD50 values of pesticides are recordedin milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of body weight of the test animal (mg/kg) or in parts per million (ppm). LC50 values of pesticides are recorded in milligrams of pesticide per volume of air or water (ppm). To put these units into perspective, 1 ppm is analogous to 1 inch in 16 miles or 1 minute in 2 years.
The LD50 and LC50 values are found in the product's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), which is available from the supplier or product manufacturer where pesticide products are purchased. Most are also available from various online sources including the manufacturer's web site. For many reasons, especially in an emergency situation, maintaining a file with copies of the label and MSDS for each pesticide product used is highly recommended.
The LD50 and LC50 values are useful in comparing the toxicity of different active ingredients as well as different formulations of the same active ingredient. The lower the LD50 value of a pesticide, the less it takes to kill 50 percent of the test population, and, therefore, the greater the acute toxicity of the chemical. Pesticides with high LD50 values are considered the least acutely toxic to humans when used according to the directions on the product label.
Acute toxicities are the basis for assigning pesticides to a toxicity category and selecting the appropriate signal word for the product label.
Pesticides that are classified as "highly toxic" on the basis of either oral, dermal, or inhalation toxicity must have the signal words DANGER and POISON (in red letters) and a graphic of a skull and crossbones prominently displayed on the package label. PELIGRO, the Spanish word for danger, must also appear on the label of highly toxic chemicals. Acute oral LD50 values for pesticide products in this group range from a trace amount to 50 mg/kg. An exposure of a few drops of a highly toxic material taken orally could be fatal to a 150-pound person.
Some pesticide products are labeled with the signal word DANGER without the skull and crossbones symbol. A DANGER signal word does not provide information about the LD50 value of the chemical. Instead, this signal word alerts the user of potentially more severe skin or eye effects from the product (caused by its irritant or corrosive properties).
Pesticide products considered "moderately toxic" must have the signal words WARNING and AVISO (Spanish) displayed on the label. Acute oral LD50 values range from 50 to 500 mg/kg. An exposure of 1 teaspoon to 1 ounce could be fatal to a 150-pound person. Pesticide products classified as either "slightly toxic" or "relatively nontoxic" are required to have the signal word CAUTION on the pesticide label. Acute oral LD50 values are greater than 500 mg/kg.
Chronic Toxicity and Chronic Effects
Any harmful effects that occur from repeated small doses over a period of time are called chronic effects.
The chronic toxicity of a pesticide is determined by observing symptoms of test animals, which result from long-term exposure to the active ingredient.
Some of the suspected chronic effects from exposure to certain pesticides include birth defects (teratogenesis); fetal toxicity (fetotoxic effects); production of tumors (oncogenesis), either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous/carcinogenesis); genetic changes (mutagenesis); blood disorders (hemotoxic effects); nerve disorders (neurotoxic effects); and reproductive effects. The chronic toxicity of a pesticide is more difficult to determine through laboratory analysis than is acute toxicity. The product's MSDS also contains information regarding chronic symptoms of pesticide exposure.