Integrated Forest Vegetation Management

To sustain healthy forest ecosystems it is necessary to consider multiple vegetation management practices using a systematic approach called Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM).
Integrated Forest Vegetation Management - Articles

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Competing and Invasive Forest Vegetation

A better understanding of the impacts created by competing and invasive vegetation in forests is needed. Competing and invasive forest vegetation impact regeneration success, proper timber stand development, and native plant and wildlife species diversity (biodiversity). Competing and invasive plants, also referred to as "interfering" plants, limit future forest species diversity and thus future timber value. They do this primarily by casting dense shade on the forest floor as well as competing for water, nutrients, and space that would otherwise be available for more desirable species.

Many factors contribute to the development of competing and invasive forest vegetation. These factors include shady understory conditions, preferential browsing by white-tailed deer, poorly planned and executed timber harvesting practices, and increasing invasive plant species abundance. Many species of competing and invasive plants are shade tolerant and thrive in shady understory conditions beneath forest canopies. Deer, by selectively browsing preferred species, shift forest understories to less preferred plant species. This includes hayscented fern, striped maple, beech, ironwood, mountain laurel, blueberry, huckleberry, spicebush and many invasive exotic plants. Poorly planned and executed timber harvests, known as high grading, leave behind trees with low commercial value. This practice has resulted in a shift towards less desirable and poorer quality tree species in our forests. Lastly, the increasing abundance of invasive plants is directly influencing the ability of forests to retain native plant and wildlife diversity.

Fern-dominated forest understories interfere with forest regeneration and provide poor habitat for wildlife

Most woodland owners recognize the presence of at least a few undesirable plant species considered competing and/or invasive. In some cases, these plants become overly abundant to the point they interfere with ownership objectives. Interference might include; the development of competing plants in the understory (e.g., beech or fern) that impede desirable hardwood regeneration; invasive exotic plants crowding out native plants and impacting wildlife habitats; and poor quality, undesirable tree species being left following a timber harvest limiting future potential. In these situations, undesirable plants may warrant control to achieve ownership objectives.

Each situation of undesirable plant control is unique. Integrated Vegetative Management (IVM) is a set of principles that helps guide the range of strategies used to address competing and invasive plant problems. Similar to Integrated Pest Management (IPM), IVM combines a number of approaches as a way of managing vegetation: cultural (silvicultural), manual/mechanical, biological, and chemical. Consider IVM a subset of IPM.

To sustain healthy forests it is necessary to consider multiple vegetation management practices, such as cutting and spraying striped maple stumps, an approach called Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM).

Five-Phased Approach to Integrated Forest Vegetation Management

  1. Scout, properly identify, and map locations of undesirable plants, defined as those considered competing and/or invasive.
  2. Learn life cycles of undesirable plants, including reproductive strategy and mechanisms used to spread.
  • What contributes to the success of the plant and what makes it difficult to control?
  1. Define threshold levels of abundance based upon management goals, priorities, and abilities.
  • Thresholds will differ depending on plant species encountered and owner objectives. For example, does the owner wish to reduce a plants abundance or completely eradicate it from the property?
  1. Begin control, use as many IVM practices as practical in concert with each other.
  2. Evaluate results and keep accurate records. Modify the control program as needed.

Successful vegetation management incorporates a set of practices into a well-planned program. Any given site will have a different history and combination of species to consider. Careful examination of each situation is necessary considering species, extent, size, time of year, and available treatment options. Routinely review results and modify plans as necessary to ensure desired level of control is met.

Fundamental Principles of an Integrated Forest Vegetation Management Program

  • Whether to control a plant depends upon management objectives, species, abundance, location and forest age.
  • Preserve desirable plants, they provide a valuable service by occupying space that might otherwise support competing and/or invasive plants.
  • Keep invasive exotic plants under control and from spreading into uninfested areas and adjoining properties.
  • Recognize and treat competing and invasive plants prior to harvesting timber. This is important because:
  • Logging slash can impede access and raise control costs
  • Increased light will cause competing and invasive plants to flourish
  • Herbicide treatments may damage or kill desirable regeneration
  • Preserving desirable plants is equally as important as controlling problem plants.


Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) and other exotic invasive plants reduce native plant and wildlife diversity.

Cultural (Silvicultural) Control

Cultural control practices tend to enhance the growth of desirable plants and make the environment less suitable for competing and invasive plants. Cultural controls strive to prevent a competing or invasive plant problem by maintaining a healthy mix of desirable plants. Cultural control practices alone may not be enough to prevent competing and invasive plants from establishing. Maintaining a vigorous and healthy forest helps reduce undesirable infestations.

This upland oak woodlot was commercially thinned of low-vigor, poorly formed, undesirable tree species. Thinning overstocked stands enhances the growth of desirable species. CAUTION: Increased light and disturbance may allow for the introduction of invasive exotic plants.

Cultural Control Practices

The following is a list of cultural control practices used in forests to suppress and/or prevent competing and invasive plant establishment.

  • Implement proper timber harvesting practices.
    • Utilize regeneration methods that create light conditions appropriate for chosen species.
    • Thin overstocked stands leaving healthy, desirable trees properly spaced.
    • Keep land disturbance from roads and landings to a minimum.
  • Use specific preventative measures during planting projects.
    • Select and plant only native species adapted to site conditions.
    • Revegetate bare soil areas as soon as possible.
    • When seeding roads and landings use certified weed-free seeds.
    • If bringing in top soil, nursery plant soil, and mulches, monitor for weeds originating from seeds and rootstock.
  • Prevent over-browsing by maintaining white-tailed deer populations at levels appropriate for available habitat.
  • Remove soil and vegetative material from logging equipment and other vehicles before entering site.
  • Monitor property frequently and eradicate small infestations before they become major problems.
  • Educate neighbors about the importance of identifying and controlling invasive exotic plants.


Maintaining white-tailed deer populations at levels appropriate for available habitat helps maintain healthy and diverse understory vegetation. Harvesting antlerless deer through legalized hunting is the most effective means of accomplishing this.

Manual/Mechanical Control

This control approach involves hand or machine removal of competing and invasive plants. Manual control practices generally involve physically pulling plants or breaking stems while mechanical removal typically involves cutting target plants using tools or machinery.

Hand pulling is practical for small isolated infestations and individual, shallow-rooted plants. Pulling works best on annuals and biennials where the entire root system is removed. Pulling is not practical for large infestations of perennial weeds, shrubs, and trees with extensive root systems, which can resprout from fragments. To remove all or most of the root system and prevent resprouting, pull plants when soil moisture is high. To prevent further spread, pull plants before seeds mature. Keep soil disturbance to a minimum so buried seed is not exposed and other plants do not invade the site.

Hand pulling or using a tool such as a Weed Wrench can be effective when removing individual plants or small infestations. The invasive shrub honeysuckles are generally easy to pull. For complete root removal pull plants when soil moisture is high.

Many weeding tools, including loppers and power equipment, can be used to cut competing and invasive plants. For larger infestations, specialized brush mowing equipment is available. Cutting competing and invasive plants removes their competitive height advantage. When done repeatedly and often, cutting can deplete stored root reserves eventually starving the plant. Cutting at the proper time of year can also prevent seed production. In most instances, cutting or mowing alone is ineffective as many plants respond by producing large numbers of vigorous sprouts. However, mowing can provide access to the site and may be the only way to initiate control of a dense infestation of woody competing and invasive plants.

Commercial grade brush cutting and forestry mulching machines are available for mowing competing vegetation to create a favorable environment for the regeneration of desirable trees and nonwoody plants. Mowing can also provide access for chemically treating resprouts the following year.

Mechanical Control Practices

The following is a list of manual/mechanical practices used in the forest for controlling competing and invasive plants.

  • Hand pull or dig individual plants and small infestations when first discovered. For complete root removal, pull plants when soil moisture is high.
    - Small trees and shrubs may be pulled using a commercial grade tool called a shrub wrench. These tools enhance human strength by using a lever action to pull roots from soil.
  • Periodically cut woody competing and invasive plants using loppers, power saws, and/or weed whackers.
    - To reduce root reserves and remove the competitive advantage make first cutting to perennial plants in early summer immediately following full leaf out.
    - Manual/mechanical methods such as pulling or cutting are not as effective as herbicides at controlling competing vegetation and are ineffective at controlling non-woody plants like ferns and grasses.
  • Mow or disk fields and meadows on a three-year cycle to prevent invasive exotic plants establishment.
    - Repeated mowing throughout the growing season for several years will deplete root reserves and may eventually eliminate regrowth of established plants.
    - Tilling and disking a site can help to remove weeds from the soil by slicing roots and burying seeds.
    - Late fall tilling can kill roots by exposing them to winter frosts.
    - Caution: Cultivation may provide a seed bed for new invasions and can spread infestations by transporting seed and root segments on equipment.

Biological Control

This type of control involves one type of organism preying on another. The most common approach is to identify and release insects or diseases known to affect the specified invasive exotic plant. Biological control measures reduce undesirable plant populations to manageable levels rather than eradicating them completely. They can provide long-term, inexpensive solutions to many invasive exotic plant problems.

After the initial biological control agent introduction, it may take years before their populations are present in large enough numbers to control targeted plants. Most often, biological control agents are researched for accidentally introduced invasive exotic plants causing severe agricultural or environmental problems. Few biological control measures are known for the numerous invasive exotic plant species found in forests.

A wilt disease (Verticillium nonalfalfae), discovered in southeast Pennsylvania, has been causing unprecedented wilt and mortality of invasive tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and is being researched as a potential biocontrol agent.

To find appropriate biological controls researchers search a plant's native range, identifying pests that limit its spread. The key to successful biocontrol is finding the insect or disease that will thrive after introduction, controlling only the targeted plant species. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for regulating introductions of species brought into the United States for biocontrol.

Biological Control Practices

The following are examples of biological control practices used in forests to limit the spread of competing and invasive plants.

  • Reconnect plants (primarily exotic invasives) with specialized natural pest enemies, usually insects and/or diseases, which control the plant in their native home range.
    This consists of:
    • Surveying the plant’s area of origin to discover natural pest enemies
    • Studying the host specificity and biology of natural pest enemies
    • Releasing natural enemies and monitoring population levels
    • Evaluating impacts on target plants
  • Prescribed grazing by domestic livestock (primarily sheep and goats) is a form of biological control. Livestock grazing on palatable competing and invasive vegetation can control some species. This form of control rarely results in eradication. Most livestock species are preferential grazers. This means they select the most palatable species first. Using goats to control undesirable plant species in woodlots has had some success. Several studies have examined how to manage herd-stocking levels, how to assess potential success, and how to sustain forest and herd health.
  • Browsing by deer is a form of biological control. However, deer tend to browse the most desired tree species from forests shifting species composition towards less desirable invasive exotic plants.

Using goats to control competing and invasive plant species in forests has had some success.

Chemical Control

This control method involves using herbicides, pesticides specifically designed to control plants. Today’s forestry labeled herbicides are a low-risk, productive, and effective method for controlling competing and invasive plants. In forest management, herbicides reduce competition between undesirable vegetation and valuable crop trees. They also aid in establishing regeneration, enhancing wildlife habitat, and facilitating road maintenance. Herbicide applications are part of most IVM programs.

Herbicide treatments are used to reduce competition between undesirable vegetation, such as this hayscented fern, and planted or naturally established tree seedlings.

Herbicide Uses/Control Practices

Forestry herbicides are used to:

  • Control undesirable vegetation including trees, shrubs, vines, and grasses
  • Increase forest productivity
  • Prepare sites for natural tree regeneration and planting
  • Boost tree seedling survival and growth rates
  • Remove non-crop trees
  • Release natural established and planted trees from weed competition

No single herbicide, rate, or application method works for all vegetation management needs. Each situation requires advanced assessment to ensure the safest, most efficient, and cost-effective chemical control program is applied. Extensive research and testing have provided low-risk, effective herbicide prescriptions for controlling most competing and invasive plant problems.

Plant species, distribution, time of year, density, and size all affect herbicide recommendations. Additional factors such as soil type and weather conditions are important because they affect plant growth, herbicide uptake, and translocation.

When treating large extensive areas broadcast treatments using helicopters or tractor-mounted equipment may be necessary. These treatments are generally non-selective applications. Selective herbicide application methods are available to target individual plants with little or no impact to desirable vegetation. With selective applications, the herbicide is applied directly to the targeted plant. These methods include directed foliar sprays, cut surface, and basal bark applications. For detailed herbicide application methods consult the Penn State Extension Herbicides and Forest Vegetation Management publication.

Skidder mounted mist blowers provide a non-selective understory treatment neccessary to control interfering vegetation when trying to naturally establish hardwood seedling regeneration.

Herbicide Treatment Guidelines

Many competing and invasive plants are perennials, with extensive root systems. Herbicide treatments often offer the best means of eradication because they can control root systems without baring soil to erosion or re-invasion. For effective herbicide treatments follow these guidelines:

  • Use herbicide that is most effective at controlling target species.
  • Apply herbicide at optimum time of year and lowest rate that provides desired level of control.
  • Follow prescribed application methods on label.
  • Adhere to all label precautions.
  • Be patient, results may not be evident until the following growing season.

Pennsylvania Forestry Herbicide Use Sheets

Below you will find tables on herbicide use and application methods. Penn State Extension provides this information as a service. They are intended as a guide and not meant to be all-inclusive. Each table lists active ingredient, trade name(s), application equipment, application method, mixture, and time of year. Information is directly from product labels and material safety data sheets.

Before using any pesticide, read and follow the label. Following recommendations on the manufacturer's label prevents many potential problems that may arise from incorrect use. Any use of a pesticide contrary to instructions on printed label is not legal or recommended.

No discrimination is intended and no endorsement or support of an individual product or company is given or implied by Penn State Extension. Author assembled the most reliable information available at time of publication. Due to constantly changing labels, laws, and regulations, author can assume no liability for recommendations.

For specific situations check with company sales representative or herbicide distributors for application rates, time of year, equipment, and costs.

Table 1: Common Forestry Herbicides

Herbicides commonly used in forestry are available under a variety of trade names. Therefore, it is best to become familiar with active ingredients also referred to as the “common” name. The following table lists alphabetically by common name (active ingredient) forest labeled herbicides approved for use in Pennsylvania. The trade name and manufacturer are shown in the columns that follow. Trade names are grouped according to active ingredient. A summary sheet is provided on each product

This information in taken from product labels and material safety data sheets. (See Crop Data Management Systems, Inc. for more information.)

Common Name (Active Ingredient)Trade Name Manufacturer
2, 4-D DMA 4 IVM Dow AgroSciences
Clopyralid Transline Dow AgroSciences
Clean Slate Nufarm
Dicamba Vanquish Nufarm
Fosamine Krenite S Albaugh/Bayer
Glyphosate Accord Concentrate Dow AgroSciences
Accord XRT II Dow AgroSciences
Roundup Pro Concentrate Monsanto
Foresters' Nufarm
Razor Nufarm
Razor Pro Nufarm
Refuge Syngenta
Rodeo Dow AgroSciences
Glyphosate and Imazapyr OneStep BASF
Hexazinone Velpar DF Bayer
Velpar L Bayer
VelossaHelena
Imazapyr Arsenal AC BASF
Chopper BASF
Stalker BASF
Polaris AC Nufarm
Polaris SP Nufarm
Metsulfuron Methyl Escort XP Bayer
Patriot Nufarm
Picloram Tordon K Dow AgroSciences
Trooper 22K Nufarm
Picloram and 2, 4-D Tordon 101 Mixture Dow AgroSciences
Trooper 101 Mixture Nufarm
Pathway Dow AgroSciences
Sulfometuron Methyl Oust XP Bayer
Spyder Nufarm
Sulfometuron Methyl and Mesulfuron Methyl Oust Extra Bayer
Triclopyr Element 3A Dow AgroSciences
Element 4 Dow AgroSciences
Garlon 3A Dow AgroSciences
Garlon 4 Ultra Dow AgroSciences
Pathfinder II Dow AgroSciences
Relegate RTU Nufarm
Tahoe 3A Nufarm
Tahoe 4E Nufarm

Table 2: Stem Injection/Frill Girdle Applications (Hack and Squirt)

Generally used to control individual trees greater than 1 inch in diameter. Stem injections use a hatchet or lance-type tree injector calibrated to deliver the proper amount of herbicide with each blow. Frill girdle applications use a hatchet or similar device to make frills or cuts at a downward angle. A spray bottle is used to apply herbicide to cuts. Cuts must penetrate the bark into the living tissue or sapwood. Label recommendations indicate proper spacing of frills and injection sites. Do not allow material to run out of cut. Not recommended for use during periods of heavy sap flow.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
2,4-DDMA 4 IVM Injection or hatchet frill girdle and spray bottleInjector: 1 - 2 ml per inch of trunk diameter. Frill girdle: continuous frill, fill cuts with mixtureInjector: undiluted.
Frill girdle: 2.6 oz/gal of water
Any season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
ClopyralidClean Slate, TranslineInjection or axe frill girdle and spray bottleInjector and Frill Girdle:1/2 ml undiluted or 1 ml diluted. 3"-4" between wound centers. At convenient height. Controls legumes only.Undiluted or diluted 1 to 1 with waterPeriods of active growth
DicambaVanquishHatchet frill girdle and spray bottle or brushContinuous frill, spray or paint cut surface within 30 min30% - 50% solution in waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
GlyphosateAccord Conc., Accord XRTII, Foresters', Razor and Razor Pro, Refuge, Rodeo, Roundup Pro Conc.Injection or hatchet frill girdle and spray bottleApply to evenly spaced cuts or continuous frill below all live branches. Best results achieved with diluted material in continuous frill25% to 100% solution in water. 1ml per 2-3 inches of trunk diameterDuring active growth after full leaf expansion
HexazinoneVelossa, Velpar L Injector or Hypo-HatchetInject 1 ml at 4 inch intervals around treeUndilutedSummer
ImazapyrArsenal AC, Polaris AC Injection or hatchet frill girdle and spray bottle or brushInjector: 1ml per cut, 1" interval between cuts. Frill girdle: 2" interval between cuts, thoroughly wet cutsDiluted: 6 oz/gal waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
ImazapyrStalker, Polaris SPInjection or hatchet frill girdle and spray bottle or brushInjector: 1 ml per cut, 1" interval between cuts. Frill girdle: 2" interval between cuts, thoroughly wet cuts8-12 oz/gal water, diesel oil, or penetrating oilAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
Picloram and 2, 4-DPathwayInjector or hatchet frill girdle and spray bottleInjector - 1 ml. in each cut, 2" - 3" between edges. Frill girdle: complete frill low on stem, spray or paint injured surface until wetUndiluted: ready-to-useAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
Picloram and 2, 4-DTordon 101 M, Trooper 101 M (Restricted Use)Injector or hatchet frill girdle and spray bottleInjector: 1/2 ml undiluted or 1ml diluted at each injector site spaced 3" between wounds Frill girdle: complete frill, wet cut surface with diluted solutionUndiluted or diluted 1:1 with waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring or during periods of drought
TriclopyrElement 3A, Garlon 3A, Tahoe 3AInjector or axe frill girdle and spray bottleInjector: 3"-4" between wound centers. Frill girdle: continuous frill. 1/2 ml undiluted or 1 ml diluted at wound/cutUndiluted or diluted 1:1 in waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring

Table 3: Cut Stump Treatments

Used to control resprouting of hardwood stumps. Herbicides are applied to freshly cut stump surface. For water-soluble herbicides, spray or paint the living tissue or sapwood immediately after cutting. If using an oil-based mixture, treatments can be applied to stumps up to 1 month following cutting. In this case, spray the sides of the stump to the root collar and the sapwood around the entire stump surface until thoroughly wet.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
2,4-DDMA 4 IVM Backpack sprayer or spray bottleThoroughly soak entire stump including surface, bark, and exposed roots immediately after cutting2.6 oz/gal of waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
ClopyralidClean Slate, TranslineSprayer or brushSpray or paint freshly cut surface including cambial area. Legume family only.Mix 50/50 with waterPeriods of active growth
DicambaVanquishBackpack sprayer, spray bottle, or brushSpray or paint to wet cambium area of freshly cut stumps within 30 min30% - 50% solution in waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
FosamineKrenite S Backpack sprayer with low pressureWet cambium and bark around stump down to root collar areaUndiluted or diluted 1:1 with waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
GlyphosateAccord Conc., Accord XRT II, Foresters', Razor and Razor Pro, Refuge, Rodeo, Roundup Pro ConcBackpack sprayer or spray bottleCut stumps close to soil surface, wet cambial area immediately on freshly cut surface50% to 100% solution in waterPeriods of active growth and full leaf expansion
ImazapyrArsenal AC, Polaris AC Backpack sprayer, spray bottle, or brushThoroughly wet entire cambial area of freshly cut stump.Diluted: 6 oz/gal waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
ImazapyrChopper, Polaris SP, StalkerBackpack sprayer, spray bottle, or brushSpray or brush to thoroughly wet cambium area of freshly cut stump8-16 oz/gal water, diesel oil or penetrating oilAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
Picloram and 2, 4-DPathwayBackpack sprayer or spray bottleSpray or paint cambium area of freshly cut stump surfaces.Undiluted: ready-to-useAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
Picloram and 2, 4-DTordon 101 M, Trooper 101 M (Restricted Use)Backpack sprayer, spray bottle, or brushSpray or paint cambium area of freshly cut stumpsUndiluted or diluted 1:1 with waterAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring or during periods of drought
TriclopyrElement 3A, Garlon 3A, Tahoe 3ABackpack sprayer, spray bottle, or brushSpray of paint cambium area of freshly cut stumpsUndilutedAny season, except during heavy sap flow in spring
TriclopyrElement 4, Garlon 4 Ultra, Tahoe 4E Backpack sprayer with solid cone or flat fan nozzleThoroughly wet root collar, stump sides and cambial area of the cut surface.20% - 30% in basal oil, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or keroseneYear round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line
Triclopyr Forestry Garlon XRTBackpack sprayer with solid cone or flat fan nozzleThoroughly wet root collar, stump sides and cambial area of the cut surface.13% - 20% in basal oil, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or kerosene. Using low volume and low pressure.Year round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line
TriclopyrPathfinder II, Relegate RTU Backpack sprayer, spray bottle, or brushTreat root collar, stump sides and cambial area of the cut surface.Ready-to-use (petroleum distillate in the product)Year round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line

Table 4: Basal Bark Treatments

Generally used to control thin-barked trees less than 6 inches in diameter at the ground line. Applications are made directly to the stem at the base of the tree or shrub. A low-pressure backpack sprayer is used to wet the lower 12 to 15 inches of the stem completely around tree, including the root collar area. Do not spray to the point of runoff.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
2,4-DDMA 4 IVM Backpack sprayerWet base and root collar until spray begins to accumulate at ground line2.6 oz/gal of waterYear round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line
ImazapyrChopper, Polaris SP, StalkerBackpack sprayer - low volumeSpray to wet lower 12"-18" of stem including root collar8-12 oz. in 1gal diesel oil or penetrating oilYear round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line
TriclopyrGarlon 4 Ultra, Tahoe 4E Backpack sprayer - low volume and pressure, solid cone or flat fan nozzleSpray to wet lower 12" - 15" of stem including root collar areaLow volume application 20% - 30% in basal oil, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or keroseneYear round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line
TriclopyrPathfinder II Backpack sprayer - low pressure, solid cone or flat fan nozzleSpray to wet lower 12" - 15" of stem.Ready-to-use (petroleum distillate in the product)Year round, except when snow or water prevent spraying to ground line

Table 5: Basal Soil Treatments

Used as a treatment to control many annual and perennial weeds and woody plants. Application is made directly to the soil surface using an exact-delivery spotgun applicator. Spray is directed at the soil within 2 to 3 feet of target plant root collar, or in a grid pattern across entire treatment area. The square grid pattern can range from 3 to 6 feet between soil application spots.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
DicambaVanquish (multiflora rose control only) Hand spot gunSingle stem: apply directly to soil within 6" to 8" of root crownDependent upon multiflora rose canopy diameter. No more than 2 qts/acApply when plants are dormant
HaxazinoneVelpar DF Exact delivery handgun applicatorApply to soil surface in grid pattern or spot soil within 3 feet of single stem root collar to be controlledGrid: undiluted,. 6 - 5.2 ml per spot, depends on soil texture. Single stem: 2 2/3 lb/gal of water, 2-4 ml for each inch of DBHApply from hardwood bud break to early summer
HaxazinoneVelpar L Exact delivery handgun applicatorApply to soil surface in grid pattern or spot soil within 3 feet of single stem root collar to be controlledGrid: undiluted,. 6 - 5.2 ml per spot, depends on soil texture. Single stem: undiluted, 2 - 4 ml for each inch of DBHApply from hardwood bud break to early summer
Metsulfuron MethylPatriot, Escort XP (multiflora rose control only) Hand spot gunSingle stem: apply 4 ml for each 2' of canopy diameter to soil within 2' of stem1 oz per gal of waterEarly spring to summer

Table 6: Site Preparation: Hardwood Planting

Herbicide site preparation treatments for hardwood plantings enhance seedling survival and growth. Site preparation treatments applied in advance of planting reduce competition from unwanted vegetation and provide increased light, nutrients, and moisture to newly planted trees. The herbicide used will vary depending on site characteristics and species planted.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
ClopyralidClean Slate, TranslineHelicopter, skidder, tractor or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar or spot applications. Spray to wet uniform coverage1/4 to 1 1/3 pints/ac in 5 or more gal of waterAnytime during the growing season. Preferred when weeds are small and actively growing
GlyphosateAccord Conc., Accord XRTII, Foresters', Razor and Razor Pro, Rodeo, Roundup Pro Conc. Helicopter, skidder, backpack, or mistblowerBroadcast foliar, spray-to-wet, and low volume directed sprayVaries by method of application, check label to see if additional surfactant is neededPrior to planting, during active growth following full leaf expansion
Metsulfuron MethylEscort XP, Patriot Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application on sites where yellow poplar is to be plantedUp to 2 oz/ac plus 1/4% surfactantPrior to planting, during active growth following full leaf expansion
Sulfometuron MethylOust XP, Spyder Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application for broadleaf weed control3 - 5 oz/acPrior to planting, during active growth following full leaf expansion

Table 7: Site Preparation: Natural Hardwood Regeneration

Herbicide site preparation treatments for natural hardwood regeneration improves germination, survival and growth of desirable tree species. Competing vegetation is controlled in advance. As new seedlings become established they are free to grow. Site preparation treatments reduce competition from unwanted vegetation and provide increased light, nutrients, and moisture to newly germinating tree seedlings.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
Glyphosate and Sulfometuron MethylAccord Concentrate and Oust XPSkidder or backpack mistblowerBroadcast foliar application following shelterwood seed cut2 qts Accord & 2 oz. Oust XP per acre, plus 1/2% non-ionic surfactantMid summer to early fall
GlyphosateAccord Conc., Foresters'Skidder, backpack sprayer, or mistblowerBroadcast foliar or spray to wet foliage (but not to point of runoff)2% - 5% solution, plus 1/2% non-ionic surfactantGrowing season following full leaf expansion
Sulfometuron MethylOust XPSkidder or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar application following shelterwood seed cut2 - 5 oz in 25 - 50 gal water/ acGrowing season during active herbaceous weed growth

Table 8: Release Treatments: Hardwood

Herbicide release treatments free existing tree seedlings, planted or naturally established, from competing vegetation. These are “selective” applications made to control competing plants without injuring desirable tree seedlings. Hardwood release treatments are applied with backpack sprayers or ground machinery. The application method, chemistry used, and time of year are important so as not to harm existing seedlings.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
ClopyralidClean Slate, TranslineHelicopter, skidder, tractor, or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar application made over the top of tolerant tree species or directed wet spot applications1/4 to 1 1/3 pints/ac in 5 or more gal of waterAnytime during the growing season. Preferred when weeds are small and actively growing
GlyphosateAccord Conc., RodeoBackpack sprayerDirected spray to wet, avoid contact with desirable plant species1% - 2% spray to wet or 5% - 10% low volume directed spray, mix with non-ionic surfactantSummer, during periods of active growth, after full leaf expansion and before fall color
GlyphosateRefugeBackpack sprayerDirected spray to wet, avoid contact with desirable plant species.8% - 1.7% spray to wet or 4% - 8% low volume directed spray. Use. 5-1.5% non-ionic surfactantSummer, during periods of active growth, after full leaf expansion and before fall color
HexazinoneVelossa, Velpar L (yellow poplar only)Helicopter or skidderBroadxast foliar application over top of planted seedlings4 - 6 pints in 5 - 25 gal of water per acreEarly spring, after soil has settled around planting slit and before but break
Metsulfuron MethylEscort XP, Patriot Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application over top of yellow poplar seedlings onlyUp to 2 oz/acEarly spring, after soil has settled around root system and prior to bud break. Herbaceous weeds: apply pre-emergence or shortly thereafter
Sulfometuron MethylOust XP, Spyder Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application over top of planted seedlings1- 4 oz/acEarly spring, after soil has settled around planting slit and before bud swell stage

Table 9: Site Preparation: Conifer Planting

Herbicide site preparation treatments for conifer plantings enhance seedling survival and growth. Site preparation treatments applied in advance of planting reduce competition from unwanted vegetation and provide increased light, nutrients, and moisture to planted seedlings. The herbicide used will vary depending on site characteristics and species planted.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
ClopyralidClean Slate, TranslineHelicopter, skidder, tractor, or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar or spot applications. Spray to wet uniform coverage1/4 to 1 1/3 pints/ac in 5 or more gal of waterAnytime during the growing season. Preferred when weeds are small and actively growing
DicambaVanquishHelicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application, uniformly cover undesirable foliage2 qts max per acre, with non-ionic surfactantDuring periods of active growth
FosamineKrenite S Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application2 - 6 qts/ac plus 16 oz/ac non-ionic surfactantApply mid-summer to early fall
GlyphosateAccord Conc., Accord XRTII, Foresters', Razor and Razor Pro, Rodeo, Roundup Pro ConcHelicopter, skidder, backpack mistblowerBroadcast foliar, spray-to-wet, and low volume directed spray foliar applicationsVaries by method of application, check label to see of additional surfactant is neededPrior to planting, active growth following full leaf expansion
Glyphosate and ImazapyrOne Step Helicopter, skidder or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar applications, directed foliar or spot sprays5 - 16 pts/ac or 5% - 10% spray solutionDuring periods of active growth
HaxazinoneVelpar DF Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application2 2/3 lb/ac - 6 2/3 lb/ac dependent upon soil textureEarly spring - early summer after bud break and before hardening off
HaxazinoneVelossa, Velpar L Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application3 - 10 qts/ac dependent upon soil textureEarly spring - early summer after bud break and before foliage hardens off
ImazapyrArsenal AC, Polaris AC Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applicationSpecies dependent, 12-40 oz/ac, 1/2% non-ionic surfactantSummer, in advance of regeneration
ImazapyrChopper, Polaris SPHelicopter, skidder, or backpackBroadcast foliar applicationSpecies dependent, 24-80 oz/acGrowing season following full leaf expansion
Metsulfuron MethylEscort XP, Patriot Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applicationUp to 4 oz/ac for loblolly pine or 2 oz/ac for red pine plus 1/4% surfactantDuring periods of active growth following full leaf expansion
PicloramTordon K, Trooper 22K (Restricted Use)Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application1 - 2 qts/acDuring periods of active growth
Picloram and 2, 4-DTordon 101 M, Trooper 101 M (Restricted Use)Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application1 - 2 gal/acDuring periods of active growth
Sulfometuron Methyl and Metsulfuron MethylOust Extra Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applications for loblolly and red pine onlySpecies dependent,
1 1/3 - 4 oz/ac
After full leaf expansion in spring and before normal defoliation in fall. Herbaceous weeds: apply pre-emergence or shortly thereafter
Sulfometuron MethylOust XP, SpyderHelicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar spray for herbaceous weed controlVaries by species, 2 - 8 oz / acEarly spring, before herbaceous weeds emerge or shortly thereafter
TriclopyrElement 3A, Garlon 3, Tahoe 3AHelicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applications2 gal/ac, 10-30 gal. spray volume, plus non-ionic surfactantDuring periods of active growth
TriclopyrElement 4, Garlon 4 Ultra, Tahoe 4EHelicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applications3 - 6 qts/acDuring periods of active growth
TriclopyrForestry Garlon XRTHelicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applications2 - 4 qts/acDuring periods of active growth

Table 10: Release Treatments: Conifer

Conifer herbicide release treatments free existing trees, planted or naturally established, from competing vegetation. They can be applied by hand, using backpack sprayers, or made with helicopters and ground machinery. The chemistry used and the time of year is important so as not to harm existing seedlings. These “selective” applications control competing plants leaving desired conifers free to grow.

Active IngredientHerbicide Trade Name(s)Application EquipmentApplication MethodMixture (Rate)Time of Year
2, 4-DDMA 4 IVM Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application1 1/2 to 3 qts/acMid to late summer, after conifers have hardened off
ClopyralidTranslineHelicopter, skidder or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar application made over the top of tolerant tree species or directed spray to wet spot applications for broadleaf weed control1/3 to 2/3 pint/ac or 1/4 oz/gal of waterAnytime during the growing season
GlyphosateAccord Conc., Foresters', Razor and Razor ProHelicopter, skidder, backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar application3/4 to 2 qts plus 1/2% non-ionic surfactant, 5 gal spray solution/acLater summer or early fall, after formation of final conifer resting bud
HaxazinoneVelpar DF Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applicationDepends upon species released and soil texture; 1 1/3 - 4 lb/acSpring after bud break and before full leaf expansion
HaxazinoneVelpar L Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar applicationDepends upon species released and soil texture; 2 - 8 qts/acSpring after bud break and before full leaf expansion
ImazapyrArsenal AC, Polaris AC Helicopter, skidder, or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar application or directed foliarSpecies dependent, 6 - 20 oz/ac, 1/4% non-ionic surfactantLate in second growing season following planting
ImazapyrChopper, Polaris SPBackpack sprayerDirected foliar spray applications2% - 10% mix in waterLate in growing season after formation of final conifer resting bud
Metsulfuron MethylEscort XP, Patriot Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar application1 - 4 oz/ac for loblolly pine onlyActive growth following full leaf expansion. Herbaceous weeds: apply pre-emergence or shortly thereafter
Sulfometuron Methyl and Metsulfuron MethylOust Extra Helicopter or skidderBroadcast foliar spray, loblolly pine only2 2/3 - 4 oz. per acActive growth following full leaf expansion. Herbaceous weeds: apply pre-emergence or shortly thereafter
Sulfometuron MethylOust XP, SpyderHelicopter, skidder, or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar spray for herbaceous weed controlVaries by species, 1 - 8 oz / acDormant season prior to conifer bud break
TriclopyrGarlon 3A, Tahoe 3AHelicopter, skidder, or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar or directed spray application with flat fan nozzel or equivalent2 - 4 qts/ac or 1 - 2% mix plus non-ionic surfactantLate summer or early fall, after formation of final conifer resting bud
TriclopyrGarlon 4 Ultra, Tahoe 4EHelicopter, skidder, or backpack sprayerBroadcast foliar applications or directed foliar spray1.5 - 3 qts per acre or 4% - 20% solution in waterLate summer or early fall after formation of final conifer resting bud, prior to fall coloration

Evaluate Results

After implementing any vegetation management practice, inspect the area and evaluate the results. Maintain a record of the type(s) of practices implemented, species of vegetation treated, date, and weather conditions before, during, and after application. Know the objectives of the control program when evaluating the results. In some cases, suppression of treated vegetation is sufficient; in others, complete eradication is desired.

Evaluate vegetation treatments after about two months, at the end of the growing season, and then again for several years thereafter. When using herbicides, initial activity and possible injury to non-target desirable vegetation is usually apparent two to four weeks after application. The full effectiveness of brush and perennial weed control measures may not be apparent for at least 12 and sometimes up to 24 months following treatment.

Evaluation is an ongoing activity. It allows for adjustments in rates, products, and timing of treatments. Plan for any additional control measures that may be needed.

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