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Diseases: BR = black rot; DM = downy mildew; PM = powdery mildew; BUR = bunch rotDisease susceptibility: 1 = low susceptibility; 2 = moderately susceptible; 3 = very susceptible; - = no informationa. Susceptible to bird depredationb. Fruit may crack after heavy rainsc. Frequent shoot breakage during growing seasond. Shoots tend to tie back in fall and wintere. Susceptible to aerial form of Phylloxeraf. Use sulfur only in postbloom spraysg. Varieties are European grapes, or Vitis viniferah. The most cold-hardy of the European red grapes
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