Recently added item(s)
You have no items in your shopping cart.
Personalize your experience with Penn State Extension. Subscribe today!
Download PDF Save For Later Print
Updated: August 8, 2017
Force field analysis is generally used to analyze the forces that tend to keep a situation in an unchanging state, balanced between equal driving and restraining forces. Kurt Lewin developed the technique in the mid-twentieth century. The technique is best used when a group seems to be stuck, but the situation is unsatisfactory. Equilibrium between driving and restraining forces can be changed in three ways:
Generally it is more productive to reduce or convert restraining forces than it is to strengthen driving forces. Strengthening drivers without reducing restraints can cause destructive stress on the system.
Gottlieb, M.R. (2003). Managing Group Process. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Thank you for your submission!