Sustainable Agriculture

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Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Wild Bees in Orchards - Articles Articles

Wild Bees in Orchards

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Varroa mite parasitizing bee. Thought to be one of the major factors contributing to hive losses. Photo Alex Wild.
Pollinator Declines - Articles Articles

Pollinator Declines

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D.

Domestic honey bees hives are down by 59% compared to 60 years ago with rapid declines over the last forty years. The populations of some native bee species may also be declining. More
Small Striped Bee (Halictus). Photo USGS Bee Inventory.
What Can We Do to Encourage Native Bees? - Articles Articles

What Can We Do to Encourage Native Bees?

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D.

Pollinators need a diverse, abundant food source and a place to build their nests and rear their young. If we keep these two elements in mind we can encourage native bee populations. More
Photo credit Mary Ann Frazier, Penn State Extension.
Who are Our Pollinators? - Articles Articles

Who are Our Pollinators?

Christina Grozinger, Ph.D., Shelby Fleischer, Ph.D.

Approximately three quarters of our major food crops are pollinated. Here we will look at how wild bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. More
Growers dependent on honey bees must constantly maintain a delicate balance between protecting their crops from pests and pathogens and protecting pollinators.
Protecting Honey Bees in Orchards - Articles Articles

Protecting Honey Bees in Orchards

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

European honey bees are the primary managed pollinators in orchards because their abundance can be managed from year to year. More
Upper left - early scab infection on bottom surface of leaf; upper right - late season scab with top surface lesions; lower left - early scab on fruit; lower right - late season scab.
Scouting for Apple Scab - Articles Articles

Scouting for Apple Scab

Kari A. Peter, Ph.D.

Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) is a disease of major importance in the mid-Atlantic region. More
Scouting Report Form for Apple Scab
Scouting Report Form for Apple Scab - Articles Articles
Standard form for reporting apple scab in your orchard. More
Farm energy audits are useful in determining where to improve energy efficiency.
Saving Energy in Tree Fruit Production - Articles Articles
In tree fruit production, refrigeration is the dominate use of electricity, while engine fuel accounts for the majority of all energy consumed. More
El manejo de plagas equilibra el trabajo físico y mental: buscando la presencia de insectos y daños y formular un plan integral para el control. Explorar diferentes secciones de sus propiedades cada semana para ajustar sus pesticidas.
MIP: Manejo Integral de Plagas - Articles Articles

MIP: Manejo Integral de Plagas

Montserrat Fonseca Estrada

A la estrategia moderna para controlar plagas se le refiere como el manejo integrado de plagas (MIP). More
At the farm level, IPM is approached as a series of activities that culminate in a decision made by the grower. The first activity - scouting - is gathering information about the environment, pest, and crop.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Orchards - Articles Articles

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Orchards

Grzegorz (Greg) Krawczyk, Ph.D.

IPM involves compiling detailed, timely information about a crop and its pests to ensure that pest management decisions are economically, environmentally, and socially sound. More
Late season feeding usually causes depressions on the fruit surface and the appearance of necrotic tissue (corking) just below the fruit surface. Late season feeding injury is often confused with "cork spot," which is caused by calcium deficiency.
Maintaining the Integrity of IPM in Pennsylvania while Battling the BMSB - Articles Articles
This article provides research-based information from Penn State entomologists to help you monitor and manage this exotic insect pest. More
Green lacewing eggs are laid on the tips of long, white, hair-like stalks to prevent cannibalism. The larvae (called aphid lions) are generalist predators of mites, thrips, soft scales, and almost any other soft-bodied prey.
Natural Enemies/Biological Control in Orchards - Articles Articles
Biological control of pest species by predators, parasitoids, and pathogens has been a cornerstone of IPM since its inception. More
Producción de la Fruta y Control de Los “Pests” - El Ecosistema de la Huerta
Producción de la Fruta y Control de Los “Pests” - El Ecosistema de la Huerta - Articles Articles
La producción de la fruta es proceso complejo con muchos variables que deben estar manejado bien para producir la fruta más bien. More
Fruit diameter and seed set in crabapples associated with various pollinators
The Role of Pollen Bees in Fruit Tree Pollination - Articles Articles
Wild and managed non-honey bee species have long supplemented honeybee pollination in fruit orchards. More
Pheromone lure for mating disruption.
Using Pheromones in Orchards for Monitoring and Mating Disruption - Articles Articles
A pheromone is a chemical messenger produced naturally by an organism. When detected by a second individual of the same species, it affects that individual's behavior. More
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