Sustainable Agriculture

Information on sustainable agriculture of fruit crops, including protecting and encouraging native bees to pollinate orchards and the Young Grower Alliance. Tips on IPM and a field guide to tree fruit disorders, pests and beneficials.

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El manejo de plagas equilibra el trabajo físico y mental: buscando la presencia de insectos y daños y formular un plan integral para el control. Explorar diferentes secciones de sus propiedades cada semana para ajustar sus pesticidas.
MIP: Manejo Integral de Plagas - Articles Articles

MIP: Manejo Integral de Plagas

Montserrat Fonseca Estrada

A la estrategia moderna para controlar plagas se le refiere como el manejo integrado de plagas (MIP). More
At the farm level, IPM is approached as a series of activities that culminate in a decision made by the grower. The first activity - scouting - is gathering information about the environment, pest, and crop.
Orchard IPM (Integrated Pest Management) - An Overview - Articles Articles
IPM involves compiling detailed, timely information about a crop and its pests to ensure that pest management decisions are economically, environmentally, and socially sound. More
Orchard IPM - Field Guide to Tree Fruit Disorders, Pests, and Beneficials
Orchard IPM - Field Guide to Tree Fruit Disorders, Pests, and Beneficials - News News
This Penn State Extension publication, in Spanish and English, is designed for use by orchard employees - often the first individuals to detect a new occurrence of a fruit disease or insect pest. More
Late season feeding usually causes depressions on the fruit surface and the appearance of necrotic tissue (corking) just below the fruit surface. Late season feeding injury is often confused with "cork spot," which is caused by calcium deficiency.
Orchard IPM - Maintaining its Integrity while Battling the BMSB - Articles Articles
This article provides research-based information from Penn State entomologists to help you monitor and manage this exotic insect pest. More
Orchard IPM - Management of Codling Moth with a MC Granulovirus
Orchard IPM - Management of Codling Moth with a MC Granulovirus - Articles Articles
Many apple growers in Pennsylvania continue to do battle with the internal fruit feeding pest complex, the codling moth (CM) Cydia pomonella, and the Oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta. More
Green lacewing eggs are laid on the tips of long, white, hair-like stalks to prevent cannibalism. The larvae (called aphid lions) are generalist predators of mites, thrips, soft scales, and almost any other soft-bodied prey.
Orchard IPM - Natural Enemies/Biological Control in Orchards - Articles Articles
Biological control of pest species by predators, parasitoids, and pathogens has been a cornerstone of IPM since its inception. More
Growers dependent on honey bees must constantly maintain a delicate balance between protecting their crops from pests and pathogens and protecting pollinators.
Orchard IPM - Protecting Honey Bees - Articles Articles
European honey bees are the primary managed pollinators in orchards because their abundance can be managed from year to year. More
Orchard IPM - Scouting
Orchard IPM - Scouting - Videos Videos

Orchard IPM - Scouting

Tara Baugher


In this short video, you will learn some basic orchard scouting principles for a common disease – apple scab – and also mite pests and beneficials. More
Upper left - early scab infection on bottom surface of leaf; upper right - late season scab with top surface lesions; lower left - early scab on fruit; lower right - late season scab.
Orchard IPM - Scouting for Apple Scab - Articles Articles
Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) is a disease of major importance in the mid-Atlantic region. More
Orchard IPM - Scouting Report Form for Apple Scab
Orchard IPM - Scouting Report Form for Apple Scab - Articles Articles
Standard form for reporting apple scab in your orchard. More
Pheromone lure for mating disruption.
Orchard IPM - Using Pheromones for Monitoring and Mating Disruption - Articles Articles
A pheromone is a chemical messenger produced naturally by an organism. When detected by a second individual of the same species, it affects that individual's behavior. More
Osmia cornifrons on an apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination - Solitary (Mason) Bees - Articles Articles
Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary bees as pollinators. More
Fruit diameter and seed set in crabapples associated with various pollinators
Orchard Pollination - The Role of Pollen Bees - Articles Articles
Wild and managed non-honey bee species have long supplemented honeybee pollination in fruit orchards. More
Andrena on apple blossom. Photo: David Biddinger
Orchard Pollination - Wild Bees - Articles Articles

Orchard Pollination - Wild Bees

Dave Biddinger, Ph.D.

Managed pollinators like honey bees and mason bees are important pollinators for orchards, but research suggests that wild bees also contribute significantly to fruit tree pollination. More
Orchard Site Preparation: Bio-renovation
Orchard Site Preparation: Bio-renovation - Videos Videos
Before establishing a new orchard block, carefully assess all the factors that will affect fruit quality, production efficiency, and orchard sustainability. More
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