Cultivars and Rootstocks

Information on cultivars and rootstocks for various fruit crops, including apples, peaches, strawberries and grapes. Tips on maturity assessments and bark grafting, bench grafting and budding in the orchard.

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Dr. Rob Crassweller, second from right, organizes an apple variety sampling. Photo: Tara Baugher, Penn State
Apple Variety Improvement: A Look at the Past, Present and Future - Articles Articles
During the 2018 Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Dr. Rob Crassweller organized an apple variety showcase. More
'Golden Delicious' on MM.111 rootstock and a 12" M.9 interstem in one of Roy Simons' trials at Illinois. Photo: Rich Marini, Penn State
Apple Rootstocks: Interstem Apple Trees Revisited - Articles Articles
Some growers are considering interstem trees as a way to avoid some of the problems experienced with the more common dwarfing rootstocks. More
‘Mayflower’ (East Malling, U.K.) is a mid-late season variety. Photo: Kathy Demchak, Penn State
Strawberry Variety Update – Fall 2017 - News News
It’s that time of year when we start thinking about putting together plant orders for next season. More
Apple Rootstocks for High Density Orchards
Apple Rootstocks for High Density Orchards - Videos Videos

Apple Rootstocks for High Density Orchards

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Michael Basedow

9:53

Commercial fruit growers are transitioning their apple orchards to high density production systems, and this is possible due to the availability of size-controlling apple rootstocks. More
Photo 1: Measuring the starch pattern index. Photo by Kathy Hunt, University of Maryland
2017 Apple Maturity Assessments—Week Four - News News
With the continued cooler temperatures and heavy rainfall in August, fruit size and red color are good. Gala harvest is in full swing; picking began soon after we sampled. More
Range of Premier Honeycrisp maturities for the whole tree strip-picked on August 15, 2017. Fruits were hand-sorted in the laboratory for a storage study, using 1962 USDA Golden Delicious Color Chips. Photo: Kathy Hunt, University of Maryland
2017 Apple Maturity Assessments—Week Three - News News
Week 3 maturity assessments indicate a need to be ready for an early apple harvest and possible spray applications to prevent preharvest drop. More
Buckeye Gala (left) Premier Honeycrisp (right) Photos: T. Baugher, Penn State
2017 Apple Maturity Assessments—Week Two - News News
This week, maturity of Premier Honeycrisp, Honeycrisp and two red Gala cultivars are compared. More
Blush and ground color changes as fruit mature. Photo: Brianne Redman
Assessing Apple Fruit Maturity in 2017 - News News
This is the second year of a grower-funded project to routinely assess fruit starch levels, ground color, and other maturity indices. More
Manzanas para venta al por menor
Manzanas para venta al por menor - Videos Videos

Manzanas para venta al por menor

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Montserrat Fonseca Estrada, Michael Basedow

11:56

En este video, hablaremos acerca de los cultivos de manzana que tienen las caracteristicas necesarias para operaciones de mercados al por menor. More
Apple Cultivars for the Wholesale Market
Apple Cultivars for the Wholesale Market - Videos Videos

Apple Cultivars for the Wholesale Market

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Michael Basedow

7:21

To keep up with consumers’ changing tastes, growers should routinely replant orchard blocks with new apple cultivars. More
Photo: Tara Baugher
Fruit Color - Promoting Red Color Development in Apple - Articles Articles
Fruit surface color is complex due to genetics and mutations, environmental factors, crop load, plant nutrition, plant stresses, and plant growth regulators. More
Apple Cultivars for the Retail Market
Apple Cultivars for the Retail Market - Videos Videos

Apple Cultivars for the Retail Market

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher, Michael Basedow

8:24

The following apples are excellent choices for retail markets. These include well-known cultivars, and some less familiar apples with characteristics that will help them stand out in the farm stand. More
Fruit Tree Propagation - Grafting and Budding
Fruit Tree Propagation - Grafting and Budding - Articles Articles
This article provides information on a few successful propagation methods that can be used on fruit trees. More
Photo: Rich Marini
Strawberry Cultivars - An Historical View - Articles Articles
Do you think older strawberry cultivars tasted better than the newer cultivars? More
NJ 9-2-1 (trialed as NJ 3) was a high-yielding and excellent flavored variety but the berry shape is not typical. Photo: Tim Elkner
Strawberry Cultivars for Plasticulture - Articles Articles

Strawberry Cultivars for Plasticulture

Kathy Demchak, Timothy Elkner

We collected data on performance of strawberry cultivars in the second harvest year of a plasticulture planting. More
G.935 is replant tolerant, but is susceptible to some latent viruses, highlighting the importance of choosing rootstocks that best fit your own unique orchard conditions. Photo by Rob Crassweller
Apple Rootstocks on the Horizon - Articles Articles

Apple Rootstocks on the Horizon

Rich Marini, Ph.D.

I spent most of the summer writing a review paper on apple rootstocks and came across information that might be of interest to commercial fruit growers. More
Apple Cultivar Photo Gallery
Apple Cultivar Photo Gallery - Articles Articles
Photos of various apple varieties grown in Pennsylvania. More
'Malwina' fruit sprouting leaves. Photo: Kathy Demchak
Strawberry Cultivars for Matted-Rows - Articles Articles
We collected data on performance of sixteen cultivars or advanced selections of strawberries in the second harvest year of a matted-row trial. Some were great, and others had a few issues. More
Injerto inglés o de lengüeta
Injerto inglés o de lengüeta - Videos Videos

Injerto inglés o de lengüeta

Montserrat Fonseca Estrada, Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Michael Basedow

8:24

¿Tiene un árbol antiguo en el que le gustaría injertar una variedad moderna con raíces más pequeñas? More
Injerto de Corona o Corteza
Injerto de Corona o Corteza - Videos Videos

Injerto de Corona o Corteza

Montserrat Fonseca Estrada, James Schupp, Ph.D., Michael Basedow

8:28

Conforme los consumidores cambian sus preferencias por las manzanas que más disfrutan, los productores pueden convertir porciones de sus huertos a estos nuevos cultivares. More
Wine Grape Production
Wine Grape Production - Articles Articles

Wine Grape Production

Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D., Lynn Kime

Grapes are produced in many areas throughout the Commonwealth and lend themselves well to small-scale and part-time farming operations. More
Blueberry Grower Interview
Blueberry Grower Interview - Videos Videos

Blueberry Grower Interview

Kathy Demchak, Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D.

3:22

Blueberry grower interview outlining the benefits and challenges of blueberry production. More
Crimson® Topaz, top left; Luna, top right; WineCrisp™, lower left; Sirius, lower right. Photos by R. Crassweller.
Apple Cultivars - Newer Scab Resistant Selections - Articles Articles
Resistance to apple scab has been a long term goal of some breeding programs. The four cultivars mentioned here all have resistance to apple scab from the Vf gene. More
Goldrush has a long growing season and is an excellent late-season cultivar for south-central Pennsylvania.
Apple Cultivars: Scab Resistance Selections - Articles Articles

Apple Cultivars: Scab Resistance Selections

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Disease resistant cultivars were developed primarily for resistance to apple scab, but some are also resistant to cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, and fire blight. More
Trees trained to a tall spindle system are commonly grown on M.9 rootstock, although new rootstocks are on the horizon.
Apple Rootstocks: Capabilities and Limitations - Articles Articles

Apple Rootstocks: Capabilities and Limitations

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., James Schupp, Ph.D.

Penn State participates in multi-state apple rootstock trials, such the NC-140 rootstock project. The following rootstock descriptions and comments are based on results from these trials. More
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