Cultivars and Rootstocks

Information on cultivars and rootstocks for various fruit crops, including apples, peaches, strawberries and grapes. Tips on maturity assessments and bark grafting, bench grafting and budding in the orchard.

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Photo 1: Measuring the starch pattern index. Photo by Kathy Hunt, University of Maryland
2017 Apple Maturity Assessments—Week Four - News News
With the continued cooler temperatures and heavy rainfall in August, fruit size and red color are good. Gala harvest is in full swing; picking began soon after we sampled. More
Range of Premier Honeycrisp maturities for the whole tree strip-picked on August 15, 2017. Fruits were hand-sorted in the laboratory for a storage study, using 1962 USDA Golden Delicious Color Chips. Photo: Kathy Hunt, University of Maryland
2017 Apple Maturity Assessments—Week Three - News News
Week 3 maturity assessments indicate a need to be ready for an early apple harvest and possible spray applications to prevent preharvest drop. More
Buckeye Gala (left) Premier Honeycrisp (right) Photos: T. Baugher, Penn State
2017 Apple Maturity Assessments—Week Two - News News
This week, maturity of Premier Honeycrisp, Honeycrisp and two red Gala cultivars are compared. More
Apple Cultivar Photo Gallery
Apple Cultivar Photo Gallery - Articles Articles
Photos of various apple varieties grown in Pennsylvania. More
Pink Lady is a late season cultivar that, in some regions, may not reach full maturity before freezing temperatures occur. Before setting out large plantings of a new strain or cultivar, always plant a few trees on a trial basis.
Apple Cultivars - Articles Articles

Apple Cultivars

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Before setting out large plantings of a new strain or cultivar, always plant a few trees on a trial basis. More
Crimson® Topaz, top left; Luna, top right; WineCrisp™, lower left; Sirius, lower right. Photos by R. Crassweller.
Apple Cultivars - Newer Scab Resistant Selections - Articles Articles
Resistance to apple scab has been a long term goal of some breeding programs. The four cultivars mentioned here all have resistance to apple scab from the Vf gene. More
Apple Cultivars for the Retail Market
Apple Cultivars for the Retail Market - Videos Videos
The following apples are excellent choices for retail markets. These include well-known cultivars, and some less familiar apples with characteristics that will help them stand out in the farm stand. More
Apple Cultivars for the Wholesale Market
Apple Cultivars for the Wholesale Market - Videos Videos
To keep up with consumers’ changing tastes, growers should routinely replant orchard blocks with new apple cultivars. More
Goldrush has a long growing season and is an excellent late-season cultivar for south-central Pennsylvania.
Apple Cultivars with Scab Resistance - Articles Articles

Apple Cultivars with Scab Resistance

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D.

Disease resistant cultivars were developed primarily for resistance to apple scab, but some are also resistant to cedar apple rust, powdery mildew, and fire blight. More
Trees trained to a tall spindle system are commonly grown on M.9 rootstock, although new rootstocks are on the horizon.
Apple Rootstocks - Articles Articles

Apple Rootstocks

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., James Schupp, Ph.D.

Penn State participates in multi-state apple rootstock trials, such the NC-140 rootstock project. The following rootstock descriptions and comments are based on results from these trials. More
Apple Rootstocks for High Density Orchards
Apple Rootstocks for High Density Orchards - Videos Videos

Apple Rootstocks for High Density Orchards

Robert Crassweller, Ph.D., Tara Baugher


Commercial fruit growers are transitioning their apple orchards to high density production systems, and this is possible due to the availability of size controlling apple rootstocks. More
G.935 is replant tolerant, but is susceptible to some latent viruses, highlighting the importance of choosing rootstocks that best fit your own unique orchard conditions. Photo by Rob Crassweller
Apple Rootstocks on the Horizon - Articles Articles
I spent most of the summer writing a review paper on apple rootstocks and came across information that might be of interest to commercial fruit growers. More
Blush and ground color changes as fruit mature. Photo: Brianne Redman
Assessing Apple Fruit Maturity in 2017 - News News
This is the second year of a grower-funded project to routinely assess fruit starch levels, ground color, and other maturity indices. More
Blueberry Grower Interview
Blueberry Grower Interview - Videos Videos

Blueberry Grower Interview

Kathy Demchak, Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D.

Blueberry grower interview More
Photo: Tara Baugher
Fruit Color - Promoting Red Color Development in Apple - Articles Articles
Fruit surface color is complex due to genetics and mutations, environmental factors, crop load, plant nutrition, plant stresses, and plant growth regulators. More
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