Brooding of Domestic Fowl

It is very important to realize that baby fowl are totally dependent upon you to meet their needs. Baby fowl need proper environment, nutrition and protection.
Brooding of Domestic Fowl - Articles


Preparing the Brooder Environment and Equipment

It is important that you properly clean and disinfect your brooder equipment and set-up your equipment at least 48 hours before your chicks arrive.

Heat Source

The first decision you must make is what heat source you will use. Artificial heat sources include incandescent light bulbs, heat lamps, electric hovers, gas hovers, and hot water radiators. Each works satisfactory as long as it is set-up in a safe manner and maintains a constant temperature comfortable for the chicks.

For small flocks, the wooden chick brooder using incandescent light bulbs for heat is the most economical. Heat lamps are more expensive to use but are the most popular.

Specific Heating Recommendations

  • Always measure the temperature at the chick's level, directly under the heat source. Do not overhead the brooding areas. Excessive heat causes dehydration, poor growth and increased mortality.
  • Secure all heat sources so they cannot be move or slip too close to flammable materials. As a rule, heat lamps should be at least 20 inches from any flammable material.
  • Supply 95°F. at chick level under the heat source for the first week. Decrease the heat by 5°F. per week until the normal daily temperature is reached (62-65 degrees F.).
  • Be sure that chicks don't get chilled during extremely cold nights or experience large temperature swings for the first 6 weeks of age. High/low thermometers are helpful to insure the temperature in the brooder does not get too hot or too cold when you are not able to observe the brooding area.
  • The brooding area should be draft free.
  • Whatever your heat source, make sure it is adjusted properly and works effectively through the day and night temperature changes.

Two methods of observing the chicks can help you understand the chicks comfort level:

  1. Comfortable chicks are spread evenly through the brooding areas. Cold chicks will huddle under the heat source. Chicks which are too warm will be seen as far from the heat that is possible. Chicks in a drafty brooding area will huddle away from the source of the draft.

  2. You can also tell if the temperatures are too extreme by looking at the young fowls legs. If the chicks are chilled, their legs will be cold to the touch and appear puffy and swollen. If the brooding area is extremely hot, the legs will look dry, thin and dehydrated.

Good Management and Set-Up of the Brooder

If the brooding area has been used to raise fowl before, thoroughly clean and disinfect the brooding facilities and equipment at least two weeks before you plan to brood your new chicks. This will allow the area to dry thoroughly.

Completely prepare the brooding area for the young fowl 48 hours before their planned arrival. This will allow the floor and other materials to warm properly prior to the chicks arrival. Preparation should include:

Space Requirements

Summary Of Brooding Requirements

Age of Chicks

Temperature ° Fahrenheit

Floor Space sq. ft./bird

Feeder Space inches/chick

Water Space inches/chick

1st Week

92 - 95°F




2 - 3 Weeks

85 - 90°F




3 - 5 Weeks

80 - 85°F




5 - 8 Weeks

70 - 80°F




8 Weeks and Up

room temperature




* Increase appropriately as birds grow and for larger breeds and types of birds.


If you brood the chicks on the floor, put down a base layer of 2-3 inches of clean, dry litter. Avoid sawdust or other fine litter for the first few weeks to limit excessive litter consumption. It is a good practice to put a burlap cloth, cheese cloth or paper towels over the litter for the first week so the young fowl can learn to distinguish the food from the litter.

In small brood boxes or coops, it may be easier to line the bottom of the brooding area with 6 to 10 pages of newspaper as a base. Then put a layer of paper towel on the top of the newspaper for traction. When the brooder gets dirty, just roll up the top 3 sheets of newspaper and put another layer of paper towel on top of the fresh newspaper.

Remember.. . never brood young fowl on slippery surfaces like newspaper or wood floors. If the young lack good traction they may develop permanent leg damage.

Three-eighths inch mesh wire floored brooders work well for most fowl. However, don't raise bantam chickens, game birds, or miniature waterfowl on wire as their hocks often will drop through the mesh and become trapped. This can be prevented by covering the mesh wire with burlap or rags for the first few weeks.


Supply one quart of water for every 25 chicks. Use drinkers the young can reach but not fall into. For Bantams, game birds and other miniature fowl, it is advisable to place marbles or pebbles in the water tray so that they can drink but not fall into the tray and drown. Don't let young waterfowl swim unsupervised in water until they are totally feathered. Their fluffy down can become saturated and birds can drown. For larger numbers, automatic nipple watering systems work excellent.


Place feeders near the heat but not directly under the heat source. To encourage eating for the first week, put feed in an egg carton top or shoe box cover. Only feed non-medicated starter foods to waterfowl to avoid possible adverse reactions to some types of poultry medications. For all other fowl feed an 18-24% medicated starter for the first eight weeks. Keep fresh feed in front of young fowl at all times.

Chicks should be fed 18-20% protein chick starter. Meat chicks can be fed 18-24% protein meat bird diet if available. Turkeys and gamebirds usually are fed 20-24% protein starter diet. Waterfowl should never be fed medicated starter diets. Feed them a waterfowl 20-22% protein starter if available. If not available, a non-medicated chicken starter will work.


Only feed a starter diet to young fowl. It is properly balanced for young growing fowl. NEVER feed laying ration to young fowl. Layer feed contains too much Calcium and will damage the bird's kidneys, create high mortality and stunt the growth in the birds that do survive.

Chick guard

If brooding young on the floor, use a chick guard during the first few weeks to prevent drafts, keep the chicks near the heat source and keep chicks from piling in corners. A chick guard is usually made of cardboard and encircles the brooding area. A chick guard 18 to 24 inches high and 6 to 10 feet cross is sufficient for 100 chicks. This is especially good in large floor pens where the chicks can get separated from the heat source & pile up in corners.

Placing the chicks

Newly hatched chicks can live on the unabsorbed yolk in their bodies for about 72 hours if necessary. If possible it is best to get them into a brooder with feed and water within 24 hours after they hatch. If you plan to ship or transport the young fowl for a long distance after incubation do not feed or water the chicks until they arrive at their final destination. Once the young fowl start eating and drinking their yolk sac will not be useful to them. Driving them home over an hour or less is ok for the chick as long as they do not get chilled.

With small numbers of young it is helpful to show each bird where the water is by quickly dipping its beak into the water tray.

Check on chicks often to ensure they are comfortable. Chicks need enough room to regulate their body temperature by moving toward or away from the heat source.

As the birds get older, replace the feeders and waterers with larger equipment and adjust them to the birds back height to limit wastage.

Other Management Tips To Consider

  • Clean and refill waterers daily with water that is cool but not too cold.
  • Add a vitamin/mineral supplement to the water of young fowl (except waterfowl) for the first week to help them get off to a better start.
  • Consider the possibility of predators attacking your flock and provide adequate protection. Rats, cats and snakes will prey on young fowl.
  • Watch your flock daily for signs of unusual behavior. Failure to eat, drink or move about normally is indications of a problem. A quick diagnosis and treatment can save your flock from unnecessary mortality.
  • If mortality does occur, get a diagnosis from a diagnostic lab as soon as possible. Give medicines and treatments only after you know the diagnosis.

Recommended Protective Health And Vaccination Practices

  1. Egg-type or breeding chickens should be vaccinated for Marek's disease at the hatchery or as they are removed from the incubator.
  2. All land fowl should have a coccidiostat in their diet for the first four weeks.
  3. Waterfowl should not be given any medicated feed since they may have some reactions to antibiotics.
  4. Vaccinate chickens for Newcastle/bronchitis via the drinking water at four weeks and eight weeks of age or as recommended by manufacturers.
  5. At eight weeks of age most chickens should be vaccinated for pox if there is a history of fowl pox on the farm or in your part of the state.
  6. If drugs are used in the feed, recommended withdrawal times before slaughter or marketing must be observed.

Build your own The Wooden Box Brooder

The plywood brooder is intended for brooding for the first four weeks of age and is easy and inexpensive to build. The proportions can be changed to accommodate different numbers of baby fowl. The brooder is designed to trap heat in half of the unit to keep the chicks warm. The other half allows the chicks to eat and move about. The top above the light bulbs should be hinged to allow you to open the top to clean the brooder and catch the chicks.

Use 2 incandescent light bulbs on the heated end of the brooder. If one burns out, the other will help maintain heat in the brooder. Two 40-watt bulbs will usually produce enough heat. However, adjust the size of the light bulbs to regulate the temperature. It should be 95°F in the heated side for the first week, and then decrease the temperature by 5°F. each week by decreasing the light bulb size. Some people build in a thermostat on the second bulb to help control the heat more accurately.

Place a layer of newspaper about 5 pages thick in the bottom of the brooder and cover with two layers of paper towel. This will keep the chicks from slipping and hurting themselves.

Reviewed by Dr. Michael Hulet.