Broad-Faced Sac Spider

Trachelas tranquillus can be found on foliage; under leaf litter, stones, and boards; and on buildings under the windowsills and siding.
Broad-Faced Sac Spider - Articles

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Trachelas tranquillus female. Photo by Steven Jacobs, Penn State Extension

Corinnidae—Corinnid Sac Spiders

(Trachelas tranquillus)

Trachelas tranquillus ranges from New England and adjacent Canada, south to Georgia and Alabama, and west to Kansas and Minnesota. They are found outdoors walking on foliage; under leaf litter, stones, and boards; and on buildings under the windowsills and siding. They construct silken retreats, within which they hide during the day. Most occurrences of T. tranquillus in homes coincide with falling temperatures in autumn. They do not, as a rule, establish reproducing colonies in homes.

Description

The females are 7 to 10 millimeters in length; the males are 5 to 6 millimeters. The chelicerae and carapace are thick, hard, reddish-brown, and covered with what appear to be tiny punctures. The abdomen is pale yellow to light gray, with a slightly darker dorsal stripe. The front pair of legs is darker and thicker; the other three pairs become increasingly lighter and thinner toward the last pair.

Life History

These spiders prefer warmer and drier habitats. They can be found at the bases of plants, on fences, inside rolled leaves, and under stones and boards. Mature females are often collected while they wander around in homes during the autumn. Males mature and mate in midsummer, and each female deposits a pure white egg sac containing thirty to fifty eggs in September or October. A common oviposition site is under loose tree bark. A peculiar trait of this spider is its reported tendency to scavenge on dead spiders and insects.

Medical Importance

The broad-faced sac spider has been reported to produce a painful bite, with records of severe secondary infection associated with the bites. It has been suggested that these infections may result from the spider’s propensity for feeding on dead and decaying arthropods. Typically, the bite produces a painful erythema similar to that of a bee or wasp sting. Individuals who are sensitive to arthropod venoms may exhibit a more severe and possibly systemic reaction.

Reference

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