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Manure Fertilizer, Photo Credit: Nicole Santangelo, PSU
Is Your Farm Ready for Inspection? - Articles Articles
By the end of 2018, 1 in 5 Pennsylvania farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed will have been visited by the Chesapeake Bay Agricultural Inspections Program. More
Pohopoco Creek Alpaca Farm
Pohopoco Creek Alpaca Farm - Articles Articles
Pohopoco Creek Alpacas, located in Effort, PA has been recognized by Penn State Extension as an Environmentally Friendly Farm. More
Where’d the Sun Go? Vitamin D and Bone Development
Where’d the Sun Go? Vitamin D and Bone Development - Articles Articles

Where’d the Sun Go? Vitamin D and Bone Development

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

This article explains the benefits of vitamin D in bone development in llamas and alpacas and the relationship to rickets in growing crias. More
Copper Nutrition in Camelids
Copper Nutrition in Camelids - Articles Articles

Copper Nutrition in Camelids

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

Llamas and alpacas require dietary copper (Cu) to help maintain normal body functions but in excess this trace mineral can be toxic. More
Body Condition Scoring of Llamas and Alpacas
Body Condition Scoring of Llamas and Alpacas - Articles Articles

Body Condition Scoring of Llamas and Alpacas

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

Body condition scoring (BCS) using a 5-point scoring system is an easy and effective way to determining an animal’s fat stores and long-term energy balance. More
Hepatic Lipidosis in Camelids
Hepatic Lipidosis in Camelids - Articles Articles

Hepatic Lipidosis in Camelids

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

A brief look into the pathogenicity and prevalence of hepatic lipidosis among camelids. More
Effects of Forage Quality on a Camelid Feeding Program
Effects of Forage Quality on a Camelid Feeding Program - Articles Articles

Effects of Forage Quality on a Camelid Feeding Program

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

A discussion of forage type, quality and amounts needed for feeding llamas and alpacas More
Determining Forage Quality: Understanding Feed Analysis
Determining Forage Quality: Understanding Feed Analysis - Articles Articles
Learn how to use feed analysis to determine forage quality, and exactly what feeding a high quality forage means. More
Inquiries on Skin Diseases and Eating Problems
Inquiries on Skin Diseases and Eating Problems - Articles Articles

Inquiries on Skin Diseases and Eating Problems

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

Learn about skin diseases and eating problems in camelids. More
Which One, Loose or Block Salt Feeding?
Which One, Loose or Block Salt Feeding? - Articles Articles

Which One, Loose or Block Salt Feeding?

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

This article discusses salt sources and intake and offers recommendations for salt feeding for alpacas and llamas More
Recognizing Hepatic Lipidosis in Llamas and Alpacas
Recognizing Hepatic Lipidosis in Llamas and Alpacas - Articles Articles

Recognizing Hepatic Lipidosis in Llamas and Alpacas

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

This publication explains hepatic lipidosis including its causes, how to diagnose it early, and methods for treatment and prevention. More
Urinary Blockage in Llamas and Alpacas
Urinary Blockage in Llamas and Alpacas - Articles Articles

Urinary Blockage in Llamas and Alpacas

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

A brief explanation of urolithiasis, predisposing factors, and health implications. More
Therapy and Prevention of Hepatic Lipidosis in Llamas and Alpacas
Therapy and Prevention of Hepatic Lipidosis in Llamas and Alpacas - Articles Articles
Treatment of llamas and alpacas with hepatic lipidosis and feeding management methods to lower the risk for this disease. More
Composting Animal Mortalities Composting Animal Mortalities - Articles
Despite the best intentions and care in animal agricultural facilities there are occasional animal mortalities. More
Problems Following Grain Consumption
Problems Following Grain Consumption - Articles Articles

Problems Following Grain Consumption

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

A response to a question about a llama that frequently regurgitates his food after eating; possible explanations and details issues related to grain consumption. More
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