Nutrition and Feeding

Information and tools to assist in managing dairy cattle nutrition and feeding, including resources on forage, silage, pasture, and water needs. Tips on monitoring heifer growth and weaning strategies for heifers and calves.

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Precision Feeding Dairy Heifers: Strategies and Recommendations
Precision Feeding Dairy Heifers: Strategies and Recommendations - Articles Articles
Provided feed intake is restricted to allow for an optimal average daily gain, high concentrate, precision-fed rations can be fed to dairy heifers successfully. More
Effects of Calf Feeding Program on First Lactation Performance
Effects of Calf Feeding Program on First Lactation Performance - Articles Articles
A review of the effects of increased milk or milk replacer feeding on milk production. More
Composition and Hygiene of Colostrum on Modern Pennsylvania Dairy Farms
Composition and Hygiene of Colostrum on Modern Pennsylvania Dairy Farms - Articles Articles
Nutrient, immunoglobulin, and bacterial content of modern colostrum and discussion of colostrum source and volume. More
Milk Replacer Costs and Your Options
Milk Replacer Costs and Your Options - Articles Articles

Milk Replacer Costs and Your Options

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Discussion of whey protein prices, alternative proteins, cost comparisons, and considerations for feeding waste milk. More
Pasteurization of Non-Saleable Milk
Pasteurization of Non-Saleable Milk - Articles Articles

Pasteurization of Non-Saleable Milk

Jud Heinrichs, Jorge A. Elizondo Salazar, Sonia L. Gelsinger

Considerations of implementing on-farm pasteurization, discussion of waste milk quality, and evaluation of heat and UV methods. More
Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
Diagnostic des Troubles de L’ensilage - Articles Articles

Diagnostic des Troubles de L’ensilage

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD, Jud Heinrichs

Cet article inclut l’évaluation sensorielle e l’ensilage de maïs, la composition chimique de l’ensilage, et les caratéristiques physiques de l’ensilage. More
Dietary Minerals for Dairy Cows on Pasture
Dietary Minerals for Dairy Cows on Pasture - Articles Articles
Pastures are often deficient in several minerals compared to the NRC requirements, and most rations need to be supplemented with concentrated sources of certain minerals. More
Considerations in Managing Cutting Height of Corn Silage
Considerations in Managing Cutting Height of Corn Silage - Articles Articles
Cutting corn silage higher can increase silage quality because the lower part of the crop is poorly digestible, but this can also reduce yield. More
Photo credit: Mat Haan
Using Nutrition Models for Lactating Dairy Cows on Pasture - Articles Articles

Using Nutrition Models for Lactating Dairy Cows on Pasture

James E. Delahoy, Lawrence D. Muller

Discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of using computer models for grazing dairy cows. More
Protein in Pastures: Can It Be Too High?
Protein in Pastures: Can It Be Too High? - Articles Articles
When pasture protein is excessive, strategic feeding of rumen fermentable carbohydrates can improve nitrogen utilization and milk yield. More
Pasture, Body Condition, and Reproduction
Pasture, Body Condition, and Reproduction - Articles Articles
Pasture systems often result in lower BCS or greater loss of BCS during the first 1 to 2 months of lactation, and supplementation to restore body condition has many benefits. More
Feeding During Shortages of Home-Grown Feeds
Feeding During Shortages of Home-Grown Feeds - Articles Articles

Feeding During Shortages of Home-Grown Feeds

Jud Heinrichs, Virginia A. Ishler

Filling a forage gap may require reducing forage intakes or purchasing additional feeds. Economics and nutritional value of potential feeds should be considered when developing a plan. More
Economics of Supplemental Feeding with Pasture-Based Systems
Economics of Supplemental Feeding with Pasture-Based Systems - Articles Articles
Consider milk and feed prices, substitution rates, and expected yield and component responses when deciding how much supplemental feed to offer. More
Fat Supplementation with Pasture-Based Systems
Fat Supplementation with Pasture-Based Systems - Articles Articles
Supplementation of fat appears to increase milk production by dairy cows grazing high-quality pastures, but the effect depends on type of fat supplement and stage of lactation. More
Photo credit: Andrew Sandeen
Managing to Get More Milk and Profit from Pasture - Articles Articles
Grazed pasture represents the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, but managing a pasture system is challenging. More
Photo credit: Mat Haan
Pasture Quality and Quantity - Articles Articles

Pasture Quality and Quantity

Kathy Soder, Larry Muller

What defines high quality pasture and how we can develop and maintain a high quality sward in abundant quantity? More
Photo credit: Mat Haan
Supplementation of Lactating Cows on Pasture - Articles Articles
Supplementing to maximize rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis is a challenge to efficiently utilizing pasture for high producing dairy cows. More
Enhancing Milk Components with Pasture-Based Systems
Enhancing Milk Components with Pasture-Based Systems - Articles Articles
In pasture-based systems the amount and type of concentrate fed, processing of ingredients, and feeding method influence milk yield and components. More
Soybeans and Soybean Byproducts for Dairy Cattle
Soybeans and Soybean Byproducts for Dairy Cattle - Articles Articles

Soybeans and Soybean Byproducts for Dairy Cattle

Virginia A. Ishler, Gabriella A. Varga

Soybeans are an excellent source of essential amino acids and complement most forages, but have some limitations. More
Troubleshooting Problems with Milkfat Depression
Troubleshooting Problems with Milkfat Depression - Articles Articles

Troubleshooting Problems with Milkfat Depression

Virginia A. Ishler, Richard S. Adams

Monitoring the milk components of a herd can help assess the health and nutritional status of lactating cows. More
Supplementing Pasture with a Total Mixed Ration
Supplementing Pasture with a Total Mixed Ration - Articles Articles
Feeding a partial TMR to grazing cows offers more “control” over the entire feeding program compared to offering pasture and grain separately. More
Use of Commodity Ingredients for Dairy Cattle
Use of Commodity Ingredients for Dairy Cattle - Articles Articles

Use of Commodity Ingredients for Dairy Cattle

Virginia A. Ishler, John Tyson, Peter Tozer

Explore ingredient storage, nutrient composition and variability, and considerations for managing a commodity-based feeding system. More
Pasture-Based Systems for Dairy Cows in the United States
Pasture-Based Systems for Dairy Cows in the United States - Articles Articles
Dairy producers have adopted grazing systems in an attempt to reduce the input costs and increase the profit margin per cow. More
Average Nutrient Composition of Typical High Quality Pastures (dry matter basis)
Average Nutrient Composition of Typical High Quality Pastures (dry matter basis) - Articles Articles
Reference table of typical nutrient composition of high quality pasture. More
Photo credit: Mat Haan
Pasturing Dry Cows and Heifers - Articles Articles
Pasture can be a cost-effective feed for dry cows and heifers, but must be managed to ensure animals meet performance goals. More