Nutrition and Feed Management

Information and tools to assist in managing dairy cattle nutrition and feed management, including resources on forage, silage, pasture, and water needs. Tips on monitoring heifer growth and weaning strategies for heifers and calves.

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Determining Forage Quality: Understanding Feed Analysis
Determining Forage Quality: Understanding Feed Analysis - Articles Articles
Learn how to use feed analysis to determine forage quality, and exactly what feeding a high quality forage means. More
Conventional Feed Schedule Component Conventional Feed Schedule Component - Articles

Conventional Feed Schedule Component

Virginia A. Ishler, Dan Ludwig

Feed management plan in a tie-stall dairy facility More
The graph generated from the Penn State IOFC tool
Income Over Feed Cost - Articles Articles

Income Over Feed Cost

Virginia A. Ishler

Monitoring income over feed costs (IOFC) is a way to evaluate a dairy's profitability. Several options are available to determine and interpret IOFC. More
Comprehensive Feed Management Monitoring Spreadsheet for Dairy Cows
Comprehensive Feed Management Monitoring Spreadsheet for Dairy Cows - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps
A monitoring tool (Excel spreadsheet) for protein and phosphorus levels in the ration and manure evaluating lactating and dry cows, and heifers. More
Corn Silage and Feed Management Impact on Income over Feed Cost
Corn Silage and Feed Management Impact on Income over Feed Cost - Webinars Webinars
Free
Optimizing IOFC, results from transition silage testing 2015-2016, forage management project results to date, reminder of upcoming project meetings More
The TMR Mineral Mismatch
The TMR Mineral Mismatch - News News

The TMR Mineral Mismatch

07/14/2017

Carbohydrates and protein are critical nutrients in precision feeding however, some interesting observations on calcium and phosphorus agreement have materialized. More
Food Safety Modernization Act - Preventive Controls for Animal Feed Rule
Food Safety Modernization Act - Preventive Controls for Animal Feed Rule - Articles Articles

Food Safety Modernization Act - Preventive Controls for Animal Feed Rule

Ginger D Fenton, PhD, Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD, Luke LaBorde, Ph.D.

Learn the details and find educational resources on the FSMA Animal Feed Rule, including videos and training opportunities that address requirements, exemptions, and deadlines of the rule. More
Photo credit: Ginger Fenton
FSMA and VFD: How Is My Dairy Farm Affected? - Articles Articles

FSMA and VFD: How Is My Dairy Farm Affected?

Ginger D Fenton, PhD, Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

Enacted to further improve the safety of our food supply, these laws will impact most farms. More
Feed Me the Scoop on Veterinary Feed Directive Feed Me the Scoop on Veterinary Feed Directive - Articles

Feed Me the Scoop on Veterinary Feed Directive

Capri Stiles-Mikesell, Greg Strait

Description of in-feed medications and how they fit into the new Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) rules taking effect January 1, 2017. More
Photo credit: Jill Kopfer
Economics and Effects of Accelerated Calf Growth Programs - Articles Articles
Increasing heifer growth rates, regardless of the feeding strategy, improves the odds of earlier age at calving, which can dramatically lower heifer costs. More
Feeding in Robotic Milking Systems
Feeding in Robotic Milking Systems - News News
A look at feeding management in Pennsylvania robot herds. More
CalfTrack Calf Management System
CalfTrack Calf Management System - Articles Articles

CalfTrack Calf Management System

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

CalfTrack is a comprehensive program to train employees that are responsible for calf care. More
How Efficient Are Your Calves?
How Efficient Are Your Calves? - Articles Articles
Feeding more milk replacer to calves can increase average daily gain, but can reduce starter intake and lower nitrogen efficiency and postweaning digestion. More
Using a Colostrometer
Using a Colostrometer - Videos Videos

Using a Colostrometer

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Sonia Arnold

3:10

Demonstration of using a colostrometer to estimate IgG content in colostrum. More
Using a Brix Refractometer
Using a Brix Refractometer - Videos Videos

Using a Brix Refractometer

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Sonia Arnold

4:11

Learn how to use optical and digital Brix refractometers to determine how much IgG colostrum contains. More
Partially chopped field of corn for silage
Spreadsheet to Price Standing Corn for Silage - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Spreadsheet to Price Standing Corn for Silage

Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., Gregory W. Roth, Ph.D., Paul Craig, Douglas Beegle, Ph.D., Ken Griswold

Use this spreadsheet to price your standing corn for silage. More
Figure 1. Conversion of glucose to acetate. Source: "Digestion: The Fermentative Processes"
Ionophores: A Technology to Improve Cattle Efficiency - Articles Articles
This article explains how the use of ionophores--antibiotics that shift ruminal fermentation patterns--can improve cattle production efficiency. More
TMR Mix Sheet Spreadsheet
TMR Mix Sheet Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

TMR Mix Sheet Spreadsheet

Timothy Beck, Virginia A. Ishler

The Penn State TMR spreadsheet allows the user to create rations, mix sheets, batch size and feed costs for up to nine rations for the whole herd. More
Metabolic Profiling
Metabolic Profiling - Articles Articles
A "metabolic profile" is a series of specific analytical tests run in combination and used as a herd-based, rather than individual-based, diagnostic aid. More
Photo credit: Amber Yutzy
Nitrate Calculator Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps
Automates calculation of nitrate intake from feed and water, suggests ways to limit nitrate intake, and converts expressions of nitrate concentration. More
Feed Value Calculator spreadsheet Feed Value Calculator spreadsheet - Tools and Apps
Calculates value of forages and concentrates using Petersen's constants; based on the price of corn, soybean meal, and average quality alfalfa hay. Feed values can then be compared to market prices. More
Dairy Heifer Diet Formulator - Spreadsheet
Dairy Heifer Diet Formulator - Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Dairy Heifer Diet Formulator - Spreadsheet

Jud Heinrichs, Lucas Mitchell

Choose feeds from the library or enter the composition of feeds on your farm, then balance a diet to meet a targeted growth rate. More
Compared to testing at room temperature, warm colostrum underestimates colostrum IgG and cold colostrum overestimates IgG.
Colostrometer Adjustment Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Colostrometer Adjustment Spreadsheet

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Adjust readings from a colostrometer to provide the value expected if colostrum was tested at 68°F. More
Feed Management and Delivery Feed Management and Delivery - Articles

Feed Management and Delivery

Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD, Ernest Hovingh, DVM, PhD

A checklist to determine the relative biosecurity risk of feed management and delivery in dairy herds. More
Dairy Risk-Management Education: Managing Income Over Feed Costs Dairy Risk-Management Education: Managing Income Over Feed Costs - Articles
To remain profitable, producers should be monitoring and making decisions based on their herd's "income over feed costs" (IOFC). More