Nutrition and Feed Management

Information and tools to assist in managing dairy cattle nutrition and feed management, including resources on forage, silage, pasture, and water needs. Tips on monitoring heifer growth and weaning strategies for heifers and calves.

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Photo credit: Coleen Jones
Rumen Development, Don’t Wean Calves Without It! - Articles Articles

Rumen Development, Don’t Wean Calves Without It!

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Regardless of how much milk you are feeding calves or what age they are at weaning, if the rumen is not ready, calves are in for a rough transition. More
Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop
Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop - Articles Articles

Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Annual event provides continuing education for feed industry professionals. More
From Harvest to Feed: Understanding Silage Management
From Harvest to Feed: Understanding Silage Management - Articles Articles

From Harvest to Feed: Understanding Silage Management

Coleen M. Jones, Gregory W. Roth, Ph.D., Virginia A. Ishler

Feeding adequate quantities of high-quality forages is the basis of profitable milk and livestock production. More
Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf
Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf - Articles Articles

Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Calf health, growth, and productivity rely heavily on nutrition and management practices. More
Batch Mix Spreadsheet
Batch Mix Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Batch Mix Spreadsheet

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Provides a simple method of adjusting the amount fed as the dry matter of forages changes. Also contains instructions for determining dry matter using a microwave. More
Penn State Particle Separator
Penn State Particle Separator - Articles Articles

Penn State Particle Separator

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

The Forage and TMR Particle Separator was designed to help in determining the correct forage particle length needed to improve ruminant nutrition. More
Spreadsheet to Calculate Milk Price
Spreadsheet to Calculate Milk Price - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Spreadsheet to Calculate Milk Price

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Calculates gross milk price using multiple-component pricing with the option of a somatic cell count adjustment. More
Spreadsheet to Compare Cost of Milk and Milk Replacer
Spreadsheet to Compare Cost of Milk and Milk Replacer - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps
Tool to compare cost of feeding whole milk or milk replacer. Calculates cost per pound of dry matter and compares amount of nutrients provided by each feed. More
Customized Dairy Heifer Growth Chart
Customized Dairy Heifer Growth Chart - Articles Articles

Customized Dairy Heifer Growth Chart

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Generates a growth chart from mature size and age at first calving. Compares heifer performance to growth required to meet herd goals, not to a breed standard. More
Determining Forage Dry Matter
Determining Forage Dry Matter - Videos Videos

Determining Forage Dry Matter

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

9:21

Understanding dry matter is a key concept in animal nutrition. Learn the importance of dry matter and how to measure it using a microwave or Koster tester. More
CalfTrack Calf Management System
CalfTrack Calf Management System - Articles Articles

CalfTrack Calf Management System

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

CalfTrack is a comprehensive program to train employees that are responsible for calf care. More
Using a Colostrometer
Using a Colostrometer - Videos Videos

Using a Colostrometer

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Sonia Arnold

3:10

Demonstration of using a colostrometer to estimate IgG content in colostrum. More
Using a Brix Refractometer
Using a Brix Refractometer - Videos Videos

Using a Brix Refractometer

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Sonia Arnold

4:11

Learn how to use optical and digital Brix refractometers to determine how much IgG colostrum contains. More
Photo credit: Amber Yutzy
Nitrate Calculator Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps
Automates calculation of nitrate intake from feed and water, suggests ways to limit nitrate intake, and converts expressions of nitrate concentration. More
Compared to testing at room temperature, warm colostrum underestimates colostrum IgG and cold colostrum overestimates IgG.
Colostrometer Adjustment Spreadsheet - Tools and Apps Tools and Apps

Colostrometer Adjustment Spreadsheet

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Adjust readings from a colostrometer to provide the value expected if colostrum was tested at 68°F. More
Using the Body Condition Scoring Excel Spreadsheet Series
Using the Body Condition Scoring Excel Spreadsheet Series - Articles Articles
Instructions for the Body Condition Scoring spreadsheet series, used to evaluate body condition in cows and heifers. Spreadsheet series is designed for a scale of 1 to 5. More
Effects of Calf Feeding Program on First Lactation Performance
Effects of Calf Feeding Program on First Lactation Performance - Articles Articles
A review of the effects of increased milk or milk replacer feeding on milk production. More
Growth Monitor: Compare Heifers to Breed Standards
Growth Monitor: Compare Heifers to Breed Standards - Articles Articles

Growth Monitor: Compare Heifers to Breed Standards

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Spreadsheet tools for tracking dairy heifer growth in comparison to breed standards. More
Manual for Batch Mix Spreadsheet
Manual for Batch Mix Spreadsheet - Articles Articles

Manual for Batch Mix Spreadsheet

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Tips and instructions for using the Batch Mix spreadsheet, a simple tool for adjusting the amount fed as the dry matter of forages changes. More
Cost Comparison of Various Calf Feeding Programs
Cost Comparison of Various Calf Feeding Programs - Articles Articles

Cost Comparison of Various Calf Feeding Programs

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Evaluation of costs of feeding pasteurized milk to calves compared to other systems considering current market conditions. More
Photo credit: Shannon Wingert
New Thoughts, Old Question: Should We Feed Calves Forage? - Articles Articles

New Thoughts, Old Question: Should We Feed Calves Forage?

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Xavier Suarez

Feeding forage to calves has been debated for years. Fermentation of grain is essential for rumen development, but sometimes calves perform better with hay. More
Feeding Acidified Milk to Calves
Feeding Acidified Milk to Calves - Articles Articles

Feeding Acidified Milk to Calves

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

This article describes reasons for acidifying milk or milk replacer and examines research on acidified milk feeding systems. More
Using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator Spreadsheet
Using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator Spreadsheet - Articles Articles

Using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator Spreadsheet

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs, Bob James, Chase Scott

Instructions for using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator spreadsheet, interpreting its output, and estimating waste milk supply and demand. More
Table: Comparison of Commercial Electrolyte Products
Table: Comparison of Commercial Electrolyte Products - Articles Articles
Summary of selected nutrients in commercial oral rehydration products. Table assumes products are mixed with water according the manufacturer's directions. More
Photos of Rumen Development
Photos of Rumen Development - Articles Articles

Photos of Rumen Development

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

This series of photos illustrates the process of rumen development in dairy calves. More
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