Nutrition and Feed Management

Information and tools to assist in managing dairy cattle nutrition and feed management, including resources on forage, silage, pasture, and water needs. Tips on monitoring heifer growth and weaning strategies for heifers and calves.

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Photo credit: Coleen Jones
Rumen Development, Don’t Wean Calves Without It! - Articles Articles

Rumen Development, Don’t Wean Calves Without It!

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Regardless of how much milk you are feeding calves or what age they are at weaning, if the rumen is not ready, calves are in for a rough transition. More
Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop
Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop - Articles Articles

Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Annual event provides continuing education for feed industry professionals. More
From Harvest to Feed: Understanding Silage Management
From Harvest to Feed: Understanding Silage Management - Articles Articles

From Harvest to Feed: Understanding Silage Management

Coleen M. Jones, Virginia A. Ishler, Gregory W. Roth, Ph.D.

Feeding adequate quantities of high-quality forages is the basis of profitable milk and livestock production. More
Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf
Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf - Articles Articles

Feeding the Newborn Dairy Calf

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Calf health, growth, and productivity rely heavily on nutrition and management practices. More
Determining Forage Dry Matter
Determining Forage Dry Matter - Videos Videos

Determining Forage Dry Matter

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

9:21

Understanding dry matter is a key concept in animal nutrition. Learn the importance of dry matter and how to measure it using a microwave or Koster tester. More
Using a Colostrometer
Using a Colostrometer - Videos Videos

Using a Colostrometer

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Sonia Arnold

3:10

Demonstration of using a colostrometer to estimate IgG content in colostrum. More
Using a Brix Refractometer
Using a Brix Refractometer - Videos Videos

Using a Brix Refractometer

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Sonia Arnold

4:11

Learn how to use optical and digital Brix refractometers to determine how much IgG colostrum contains. More
Growth Monitor: Compare Heifers to Breed Standards
Growth Monitor: Compare Heifers to Breed Standards - Articles Articles

Growth Monitor: Compare Heifers to Breed Standards

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Spreadsheet tools for tracking dairy heifer growth in comparison to breed standards. More
Using the Body Condition Scoring Excel Spreadsheet Series
Using the Body Condition Scoring Excel Spreadsheet Series - Articles Articles
Instructions for the Body Condition Scoring spreadsheet series, used to evaluate body condition in cows and heifers. Spreadsheet series is designed for a scale of 1 to 5. More
Learn To Score Body Condition
Learn To Score Body Condition - Videos Videos

Learn To Score Body Condition

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

12:10

Learn to assign body condition scores for dairy cattle on a 5-point scale by evaluating specific areas of the pelvis and loin. More
Effects of Calf Feeding Program on First Lactation Performance
Effects of Calf Feeding Program on First Lactation Performance - Articles Articles
A review of the effects of increased milk or milk replacer feeding on milk production. More
Composition and Hygiene of Colostrum on Modern Pennsylvania Dairy Farms
Composition and Hygiene of Colostrum on Modern Pennsylvania Dairy Farms - Articles Articles
Nutrient, immunoglobulin, and bacterial content of modern colostrum and discussion of colostrum source and volume. More
Milk Replacer Costs and Your Options
Milk Replacer Costs and Your Options - Articles Articles

Milk Replacer Costs and Your Options

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Discussion of whey protein prices, alternative proteins, cost comparisons, and considerations for feeding waste milk. More
Table: Comparison of Commercial Electrolyte Products
Table: Comparison of Commercial Electrolyte Products - Articles Articles
Summary of selected nutrients in commercial oral rehydration products. Table assumes products are mixed with water according the manufacturer's directions. More
Colostrum Supplements and Replacer
Colostrum Supplements and Replacer - Articles Articles

Colostrum Supplements and Replacer

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Colostrum products can be valuable tools to increase calf immunity. This article describes the composition and effectiveness of colostrum supplements and replacers. More
Using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator Spreadsheet
Using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator Spreadsheet - Articles Articles

Using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator Spreadsheet

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs, Bob James, Chase Scott

Instructions for using the Calf Milk Pasteurization Evaluator spreadsheet, interpreting its output, and estimating waste milk supply and demand. More
Colostrum Management Tools: Hydrometers and Refractometers
Colostrum Management Tools: Hydrometers and Refractometers - Articles Articles
This publication describes the use of the Colostrometer and the Brix refractometer in managing colostrum on the farm. More
Early Weaning Strategies
Early Weaning Strategies - Articles Articles

Early Weaning Strategies

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Recommendations for weaning criteria, strategies for successful weaning, and feed and growth from weaning to 6 months. More
CalfTrack Calf Management System
CalfTrack Calf Management System - Articles Articles

CalfTrack Calf Management System

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

CalfTrack is a comprehensive program to train employees that are responsible for calf care. More
Body Condition Scoring as a Tool for Dairy Herd Management
Body Condition Scoring as a Tool for Dairy Herd Management - Articles Articles

Body Condition Scoring as a Tool for Dairy Herd Management

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Virginia A. Ishler

Body condition scoring evaluates fatness or thinness according to a five-point scale and scores are used to fine-tune dairy nutrition and health. More
Photo credit: Cassie Yost
Feed Efficiency in Dairy Heifers - Articles Articles

Feed Efficiency in Dairy Heifers

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones, Xavier Suarez

Discussion of ways to improve feed efficiency in dairy heifers. More
Penn State Particle Separator
Penn State Particle Separator - Articles Articles

Penn State Particle Separator

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

The Forage and TMR Particle Separator was designed to help in determining the correct forage particle length needed to improve ruminant nutrition. More
Photos of Rumen Development
Photos of Rumen Development - Articles Articles

Photos of Rumen Development

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

This series of photos illustrates the process of rumen development in dairy calves. More
Examples of Cows at Various Body Condition Scores
Examples of Cows at Various Body Condition Scores - Articles Articles

Examples of Cows at Various Body Condition Scores

Coleen M. Jones, Jud Heinrichs

Photos demonstrate dairy cows with a range of body condition scores. Each photo includes key observations at that score. More
Photo credit: Jill Kopfer
Monitoring Dairy Heifer Growth - Articles Articles

Monitoring Dairy Heifer Growth

Jud Heinrichs, Coleen M. Jones

Success of a heifer-rearing program can be evaluated by monitoring height and weight of heifers and comparing the results against the herd's growth goals. More
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