These tests are conducted annually to provide interested people with information regarding the performance of small grains grown in Pennsylvania. This report summarizes performance results for the 2012-2013 growing season. Winter wheat varieties were tested at both the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center at Rock Springs in Centre County and at the Southeast Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Landisville in Lancaster County. Winter barley varieties were tested at only the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center at Rock Springs in Centre County.
Private seed companies and universities provided the entries for these trials. Contact information for each company or university is listed in Table 1. Seed treatments varied and were applied by the entrants. Most were Raxil/Thiram or Dividend. A total of 62 wheat and 16 barley varieties were entered. Seeding rates in the wheat and hulled barley plots were 1.6 million seeds per acre, while the hulless barley plots were seeded at 1.9 million seeds per acre.
The winter wheat trial in Centre County was planted in to a tilled seedbed, in a field following oats, on October 10, 2012. Preplant fertilizer of 200 lb/acre of 10-20-20 was applied according to soil test recommendations. The plots were planted 18 feet in length, with 7 rows, spaced 7.5 inches apart. On April 6, the trial was topdressed with 100 lb N/acre as UAN. Weed control was achieved with a 0.45 oz Harmony Extra application in the spring. Prior to heading, the plots were trimmed to 14 feet. The middle 5 rows of each plot were harvested for yield. The trial was harvested on July 16th.
The winter wheat trial in Lancaster County was planted in to a tilled seedbed, in a field following soybeans, on October 26, 2012. No preplant fertilizer was applied. The plots were planted 18 feet in length, with 7 rows, spaced 7.5 inches apart. On April 4th, the trial was topdressed with 100 lb N/acre as UAN, plus 0.45 oz Harmony Extra. Prior to heading, the plots were trimmed to 14 feet. The middle 5 rows of each plot were harvested for yield. The trial was harvested on July 18th.
The following observations were made for the wheat trial:
- Yield was based on 60 lbs per bushel for wheat and adjusted to 12 percent moisture.
- Test Weight is based on pounds per bushel of grain at the moisture for that particular variety.
- Heading (50% of plants in plot headed) dates were recorded.
- Height is the average length of plants from the ground to the highest part of the head.
- Lodging was rated just prior to harvest as percent of plants leaning significantly or broken.
- Powdery Mildew is rated on a scale of 0-10 with 10 being the highest infection where: 0 = 0 - trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace-50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1- 5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with > 15% leaf area covered. (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the progress of the disease upward on the plants and was developed at Ohio State University.
The Centre County barley trial was planted in to a tilled seedbed, in a field following oats, on September 20th, 2012. Preplant fertilizer of 200 lb/acre of 10-20-20 was applied according to soil test recommendations. The plots were planted 18 feet in length, with 7 rows, spaced 7.5 inches apart. On March 15th, the trial was topdressed with 75 lb N/acre as UAN. Prior to heading, the plots were trimmed to 14 feet. The middle 5 rows of each plot were harvested for yield. Unfortunately this trial had to be abandoned prior to harvest due to variability caused by winterkill associated with winter runoff.
Interpretation of results
Variety performance differences are caused partially by genetic differences and partially by soil variation and other environmental variations which cannot be adequately controlled. Thus, small differences in performance may have no significance. Multiple-year and site averages are a more valid indication of the performance of a specific variety than are data for a single year or site. Statistical procedures have been used for the most important characteristics to allow meaningful comparisons of variety averages at a particular location. A standard least significant difference (LSD) value is provided for comparing varieties. Any difference between two variety averages that exceeds the LSD value is considered significant and not simply a result of uncontrolled environmental variation.
Traditionally, LSD values have been calculated at the 0.05 level, which means that when differences between varieties exceed the LSD, we can be 95% confident that the differences are not due to chance. The downside of this approach is that it leads to the conclusion that many varieties in the test have similar yield performance, when there really may be differences in the yield potential. Many universities have switched to a less conservative 0.25 level for the LSD, thus reducing the chance of concluding that varieties are not different, when a true difference exists among the lines. In this report, we present the LSD values at both the 0.05 level and the 0.25 level for your consideration.
The value of coefficient of variation (CV) is a measure of relative variation useful in evaluating the precision achieved in an experiment. In grain and forage trials, for example, the CV value for yield is often between 5 and 15 percent. Confidence in the reliability of the experimental results declines as the CV value increases. Uncontrollable or unmeasurable variations in soil fertility, soil drainage, and other environmental factors contribute to increased CV values.
Wheat yields were up significantly in Centre County, but similar in Lancaster County when compared to the 2012 trials. In 2013 the Centre County wheat trial averaged 18 bu/ac higher than the Lancaster trial. This was likely due in part to the earlier planting in the Centre County trial which improved tiller development in the fall. In addition, the Lancaster County site had a number of severe rain storms late in the season, which delayed our harvest by at least 2 weeks. Yields were lower in Lancaster, averaging just over 70 bu/ac and bushel weights were especially low - presumably a result of the wet weather and delayed harvest. Head scab levels were generally low at both locations but powdery mildew was present at both locations.
Table 1. Contact information for companies participating in the 2012-2103 Winter Wheat Evaluation Trials.
|Contact Information||2012-13 Wheat Entries|
|AgriMAXX Wheat Company|
|AgriMAXX 413, AgriMAXX415, AgriMAXX 427, AgriMAXX 434, Agri Maxx EXP 1342|
|Paradise, Juniata, DF 75, X401, X402, X403|
|Dyna-Gro||Shirley, Yorktown, 9042, 9171, 9223, 9343|
|FS 815, FS 820, FS 870, FS 888|
|Eddie Mercer Agri-Services, Inc.|
|Mercer Brand 12-W-270, Mercer Brand 12-W-296, Mercer Brand 12-V-251, Mercer Brand 12-V-258|
|Mid Atlantic Seeds Inc.|
|MAS-2, MAS-4, MAS-6, MAS-7, MAS-23, MAS-26|
|Ohio Seed Improvement Assoc.|
|Sunburst, Malabar, Hopewell, Bromfield|
|Dupont Pioneer||25R32, 25R39, 25R40, 25R77|
|SW52, SW53, SW56|
|Pierson, Heilman, Hunker|
|Syngenta Seeds Inc.|
|Branson, SY 1526, SY 483, MH07-7474|
|USG 3251, USG 3612, USG 3315, USG 3523, USG 3404, USG 3770, USG 3993|
|University of MD Small Grains Breeding and Testing|
410-742-1178 ext 308
|Virginia Tech||Merl, VA07W-415, VA09W-73, VA09W-75|
Table 2. Production details for the 2013 Winter Wheat Performance Trials.
|Site||Lancaster County (Landisville)||Centre County (Rock Springs)|
|Seed Rate||1.6 million/ac||1.6 million/ac|
|Fall Fertilizer||none||200 lbs. 10-20-20|
|Herbicides||0.45 oz Harmony Extra||0.45 oz Harmony Extra|
|Spring N Fertilizer|
|N Rate||100 lb/a||100 lb/a|
|N Application Date||4-Apr||6-Apr|
Prepared by: Mark Antle, Research Support Assistant and Greg Roth, Professor of Agronomy, Department of Plant Science. Thanks to the staff at both research farms for assistance with the 2012-2013 Pennsylvania Small Grain Variety trials.