Fruit Times

May 27, 2016

A new set of tools is currently being developed to help you manage crop pests and increase your profitability. The Integrated Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education (iPiPE) is a national Web-based IT platform that combines user-contributed pest observations and translates them to real-time pest distribution maps and forecasts of pest risk. Throughout the season iPiPE informs you about the pests and diseases in your vicinity and provides management recommendations from professionals to help you make decisions about protecting your crop. The project is funded by a USDA Food Security Program grant and involves 28 crops around the nation.

Estimated daily carbohydrate balance for May 24th to 30th.
May 24, 2016

The weather has finally broken with temperatures in Adams County to be in the 80s for most of the week. Today’s run does not contain as many sites due to discrepancies in some of the data reported to Rainwise.

Discolored foliage caused by early season rosy apple aphid feeding.
May 23, 2016

The codling moth egg hatch developmental model provided by SkyBit Inc., initiated on May 7 (biofix in Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center orchards), forecasts about 5 to 10 percent egg hatch to occur on May 30 for the Biglerville area. This is an optimal timing to initiate management activities against codling moth.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 16 - 20
May 20, 2016

The majority of the sites are showing a 4DB of slightly positive carbohydrate levels (3.07 to 15.15 g/day) to slightly negative(-2.12 to -16.32 g/day). The trend through the weekend into early next week shows positive 4DB for six of the sites.

Codling moth adult. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
May 16, 2016

This past week we were finally able to establish the biofixes for codling moth and tufted apple budmoth on May 07 and May 10, respectively.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 13 - 16
May 16, 2016

Pennsylvania had a little bit of everything in yesterday’s weather – snow, rain, wind, and cold temperatures.

May 13, 2016

Please note that we have added another site in Schuylkill County in Hegins, PA.

Figure 1. The Chemical Thinning Triangle.
May 10, 2016

Chemical thinning is a complex process that annually challenges the professional apple grower. In recent years, many growers have started using the MaluSim Carbon Balance Model to assist them in managing the crop load of their trees.

May 10, 2016

Generally we had the most sunshine Saturday and Sunday that we have had in over a week. Most sites are calling for a decrease in the rate of thinner

Delta style sex pheromone trap for monitoring Oriental fruit moth in orchards. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
May 6, 2016

The colder than usual weather during the last two weeks is slowing the normal activities of most insects, including the most important fruit pests. However, while some fruit pests may be slower to complete their development, the current weather will not prevent potential injuries.

May 6, 2016

As a new grape season approaches, you all may be asking yourselves, “What is going to be my biggest headache this season?” As far as insects go, I would have to answer, as always, the grape berry moth (GBM). In this blog I would like to touch on the most recent research regarding the grape berry moth, as well as, other insects to scout for in your vineyards in the early part of the growing season.

Most important scab infection period of the season this week: protect your trees! Photo: K. Peter
May 3, 2016

According to the models, we have been in an apple scab infection period since April 27 and will continue to have favorable disease conditions through the weekend. This is an extremely important infection period since the scab spores are peaking. Be sure to get complete coverage of your trees and tank mix with a broad spectrum (EBDC or captan) for maximum protection of your trees.

May 3, 2016

More orchards have entered full bloom over the weekend. In some cases, there was as much as a week’s difference in full bloom with some cultivars.

May 2, 2016

Understanding insecticide modes of action may not be easy but following the IRAC MoA Classification for resistance management is as simple as rotating the numbers.

The release of overwintering apple scab spores will be peaking soon: protect your trees. Photo: K. Peter
April 29, 2016

After a dry April, rain has crept into the forecast making conditions ideal for apple scab, fire blight, and cherry leaf spot. Other diseases to keep an eye for management are powdery mildew and bacterial spot. For those who had their stone fruit crop frozen out in April, disease management is still needed. Disease infection periods are being posted for regions in Pennsylvania and Maryland.

April 29, 2016

After an early beginning to the growing season that saw green tip stage reached on average about 18 days ahead of last year, the weather cooled off and for stations reporting full bloom as of the morning of April 30, they are only 11 to 12 days ahead of last year. Obviously frost damage to flowers and spur leaves will be a compounding factor in deciding whether and when to thin this year.

Oriental fruit moth injured shoot. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
April 29, 2016

The spring weather, and its impact on the development of insects, continues to be a roller coaster ride. The Oriental fruit moth biofix (first sustained moth flights for the season) was established on April 12, the second earliest date on record.

In apples boron is commonly applied as a foliar spray either early in the spring or as a postharvest application. Photo: T. Baugher
April 29, 2016

Boron is one of the essential micronutrients for tree fruit. It helps in the fruit setting process by facilitating pollen development and subsequent pollen tube growth.

The tall spindle was developed as an offshoot of the slender spindle training system to take advantage of increased canopy volume by increasing tree height.
April 29, 2016

Many of you are replacing older orchards with newer varieties and newer training systems. One of the systems that is currently in vogue is the Tall Spindle System (TSS). It was proposed and developed largely by Terence Robinson at Cornell University. Its popularity is due to the simplicity of its pruning.

Well-Feathered Fuji/V6 at planting. Photo: R. Crassweller
April 29, 2016

We have been working with the Tall Spindle System (TSS) since 2008 with Jonagold/B9 and Daybreak Fuji/M.9 T337. We also have a planting established in 2010 with Aztec Fuji as an NC-140 uniform rootstock trial. In 2014 we established another NC-140 trial with Honeycrisp and Aztec Fuji on 7 and 6 rootstocks respectively.