Fruit Times

The Year of Rust: Cedar apple rust infection an apple leaf. Photo: K. Peter
June 3, 2016

Although we experienced several cool, cloudy weeks, those conditions didn’t deter the bacteria and fungi in the orchard. As the temperatures are warming up and the humidity rolling in, disease symptoms are becoming more apparent. Recommendations for several apple and stone fruit diseases folks need to be mindful of are discussed.

June 3, 2016

This will be the last published run of the Cornell carbohydrate model for determining apple thinning rates and timings. You can still go to the web site and run the model but the model will not give you a recommendation. As I mentioned in the last posting you can interpret the 4 Day Average Balance by looking at the recommendation chart in the "More Info” tab.

Cyclamen mite leaf damage. Photo: Kathleen Demchak
June 3, 2016

We’ve received a number of calls from growers who are concerned about various types of leaf distortion on their strawberry plants this year. Here is a review of some of the more common causes.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 27 - 30
May 31, 2016

The window for thinner applications is rapidly closing in the south central and eastern part of the state. Four day carbohydrate average balances for the most part are positive numbers representing the fact that shoot growth is rapidly increasing as shoots become net exporters and the response to thinners is more difficult.

Scout for scab infections: brownish velvety lesions on the underside of leaves. (Photo: K. Peter)
May 27, 2016

We had optimal conditions for apple scab infections this month and it’s time to start scouting the orchard for possible infection. Fire blight symptoms have been slow due to the chilly weather over the last several weeks; however, with the warm weather this week, fire blight may become more symptomatic. Be vigilant when scouting for fire blight and prune infections as soon as possible. In addition: newly planted blocks that may be blooming need protection to prevent blossom blight right now.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 24 - 26
May 27, 2016

As we suggested last week and early this week the temperatures and solar radiation levels are very high setting up 4 Day Average Balances that are quite negative for all the sites.

May 27, 2016

A new set of tools is currently being developed to help you manage crop pests and increase your profitability. The Integrated Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education (iPiPE) is a national Web-based IT platform that combines user-contributed pest observations and translates them to real-time pest distribution maps and forecasts of pest risk. Throughout the season iPiPE informs you about the pests and diseases in your vicinity and provides management recommendations from professionals to help you make decisions about protecting your crop. The project is funded by a USDA Food Security Program grant and involves 28 crops around the nation.

Estimated daily carbohydrate balance for May 24th to 30th.
May 24, 2016

The weather has finally broken with temperatures in Adams County to be in the 80s for most of the week. Today’s run does not contain as many sites due to discrepancies in some of the data reported to Rainwise.

Discolored foliage caused by early season rosy apple aphid feeding.
May 23, 2016

The codling moth egg hatch developmental model provided by SkyBit Inc., initiated on May 7 (biofix in Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center orchards), forecasts about 5 to 10 percent egg hatch to occur on May 30 for the Biglerville area. This is an optimal timing to initiate management activities against codling moth.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 16 - 20
May 20, 2016

The majority of the sites are showing a 4DB of slightly positive carbohydrate levels (3.07 to 15.15 g/day) to slightly negative(-2.12 to -16.32 g/day). The trend through the weekend into early next week shows positive 4DB for six of the sites.

Codling moth adult. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
May 16, 2016

This past week we were finally able to establish the biofixes for codling moth and tufted apple budmoth on May 07 and May 10, respectively.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 13 - 16
May 16, 2016

Pennsylvania had a little bit of everything in yesterday’s weather – snow, rain, wind, and cold temperatures.

May 13, 2016

Please note that we have added another site in Schuylkill County in Hegins, PA.

Figure 1. The Chemical Thinning Triangle.
May 10, 2016

Chemical thinning is a complex process that annually challenges the professional apple grower. In recent years, many growers have started using the MaluSim Carbon Balance Model to assist them in managing the crop load of their trees.

May 10, 2016

Generally we had the most sunshine Saturday and Sunday that we have had in over a week. Most sites are calling for a decrease in the rate of thinner

Delta style sex pheromone trap for monitoring Oriental fruit moth in orchards. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
May 6, 2016

The colder than usual weather during the last two weeks is slowing the normal activities of most insects, including the most important fruit pests. However, while some fruit pests may be slower to complete their development, the current weather will not prevent potential injuries.

May 6, 2016

As a new grape season approaches, you all may be asking yourselves, “What is going to be my biggest headache this season?” As far as insects go, I would have to answer, as always, the grape berry moth (GBM). In this blog I would like to touch on the most recent research regarding the grape berry moth, as well as, other insects to scout for in your vineyards in the early part of the growing season.

Most important scab infection period of the season this week: protect your trees! Photo: K. Peter
May 3, 2016

According to the models, we have been in an apple scab infection period since April 27 and will continue to have favorable disease conditions through the weekend. This is an extremely important infection period since the scab spores are peaking. Be sure to get complete coverage of your trees and tank mix with a broad spectrum (EBDC or captan) for maximum protection of your trees.

May 3, 2016

More orchards have entered full bloom over the weekend. In some cases, there was as much as a week’s difference in full bloom with some cultivars.

May 2, 2016

Understanding insecticide modes of action may not be easy but following the IRAC MoA Classification for resistance management is as simple as rotating the numbers.