We all get a little rusty as we get older, but one thing that we don’t want to see getting rusty is our brambles. There are several rust diseases that affect brambles. I’m just going to focus on orange rust, which is the most important rust disease in the northeast. We are definitely seeing a bit of orange rust this year, with the cool wet springs. You’ll see this disease on blackberries, black raspberries and purple raspberries. Orange rust does not affect red raspberries.
Bumble bees have discriminating palettes when it comes to their pollen meals, according to researchers at Penn State. The researchers found that bumble bees can detect the nutritional quality of pollen, and that this ability helps them selectively forage among plant species to optimize their diets.
This past week we started to see a significant buildup in the numbers of Japanese beetles in many orchards located in southern Pennsylvania. The nymphs of brown marmorated stink are now present in orchards, which indicates a shift from “probable injuries” to actual nymphal feeding (and injuries) on fruit. The end of June is a good time to search for the first male adults of spotted wing drosophila, and traps are a very effective tool to detect increasing populations of SWD.
We continue to observe a strong presence of codling moth adults in pheromone traps placed in commercial apple orchards. Despite the codling moth developmental model suggesting the end of the codling moth egg hatch period (95% eggs hatched by June 25), the presence of moths in the traps in the next few weeks still warrants extended management activities.
Bees and bee health are still making headlines, and sorely needed research results are finally starting to emerge. In early May, Horticultural Research Institute participated in a research symposium at Penn State University where early results from several research projects relevant to pollinator health were shared.
This past week (June 1) we finally captured the first moths of obliquebanded leafroller in pheromone traps. This completes the list of establishing important biofixes for the 2016 season. While the first biofix for the earliest active species, redbanded leafroller happened on March 22 (a tie for the earliest ever), the obliquebanded leafroller biofix was one of the latest on record for the Biglerville area. Looking at the degree day accumulation, it appears we are back to an “average year,” with a very similar accumulation of degree days base 43 as during the 2015 season.
A new smartphone application, called MyIPM-NED, was developed to promote integrated disease management for apples, pears, cherries, and cranberries and is available for free for Android and iOS devices. These apps are also able to be used on tablets, as well.
Although we experienced several cool, cloudy weeks, those conditions didn’t deter the bacteria and fungi in the orchard. As the temperatures are warming up and the humidity rolling in, disease symptoms are becoming more apparent. Recommendations for several apple and stone fruit diseases folks need to be mindful of are discussed.
This will be the last published run of the Cornell carbohydrate model for determining apple thinning rates and timings. You can still go to the web site and run the model but the model will not give you a recommendation. As I mentioned in the last posting you can interpret the 4 Day Average Balance by looking at the recommendation chart in the "More Info” tab.
We’ve received a number of calls from growers who are concerned about various types of leaf distortion on their strawberry plants this year. Here is a review of some of the more common causes.
The window for thinner applications is rapidly closing in the south central and eastern part of the state. Four day carbohydrate average balances for the most part are positive numbers representing the fact that shoot growth is rapidly increasing as shoots become net exporters and the response to thinners is more difficult.
We had optimal conditions for apple scab infections this month and it’s time to start scouting the orchard for possible infection. Fire blight symptoms have been slow due to the chilly weather over the last several weeks; however, with the warm weather this week, fire blight may become more symptomatic. Be vigilant when scouting for fire blight and prune infections as soon as possible. In addition: newly planted blocks that may be blooming need protection to prevent blossom blight right now.
As we suggested last week and early this week the temperatures and solar radiation levels are very high setting up 4 Day Average Balances that are quite negative for all the sites.
A new set of tools is currently being developed to help you manage crop pests and increase your profitability. The Integrated Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education (iPiPE) is a national Web-based IT platform that combines user-contributed pest observations and translates them to real-time pest distribution maps and forecasts of pest risk. Throughout the season iPiPE informs you about the pests and diseases in your vicinity and provides management recommendations from professionals to help you make decisions about protecting your crop. The project is funded by a USDA Food Security Program grant and involves 28 crops around the nation.
The weather has finally broken with temperatures in Adams County to be in the 80s for most of the week. Today’s run does not contain as many sites due to discrepancies in some of the data reported to Rainwise.
The codling moth egg hatch developmental model provided by SkyBit Inc., initiated on May 7 (biofix in Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center orchards), forecasts about 5 to 10 percent egg hatch to occur on May 30 for the Biglerville area. This is an optimal timing to initiate management activities against codling moth.
The majority of the sites are showing a 4DB of slightly positive carbohydrate levels (3.07 to 15.15 g/day) to slightly negative(-2.12 to -16.32 g/day). The trend through the weekend into early next week shows positive 4DB for six of the sites.
This past week we were finally able to establish the biofixes for codling moth and tufted apple budmoth on May 07 and May 10, respectively.
Pennsylvania had a little bit of everything in yesterday’s weather – snow, rain, wind, and cold temperatures.
Please note that we have added another site in Schuylkill County in Hegins, PA.