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Buckeye Gala (left) Premier Honeycrisp (right) Photos: T. Baugher, Penn State
August 11, 2017

This week, maturity of Premier Honeycrisp, Honeycrisp and two red Gala cultivars are compared.

Brown marmorated stink bug adult and nymphs on corn. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
August 11, 2017

The flights of the second generation codling moth (CM) and third generation oriental fruit moth (OFM) continue in most Pennsylvania pome fruit orchards.

Honeycrisp (right) Ultima Gala (left) Photo: Kathleen W. Hunt, University of Maryland
August 2, 2017

Yesterday we collected our first fruit samples for assessments of the maturity of Premier Honeycrisp, Honeycrisp, Buckeye Gala, and Ultima Gala.

Hail damaged fruit need protection from fruit rots. Photo: T. Ford, Penn State
July 28, 2017

Management considerations are discussed for mitigating pome and stone fruit rots. Hail damaged fruit destined for juicing still need protection from rots.

Photo: Sladjana Prozo
July 28, 2017

Bitter pit severity varies with cultivar and season, but Honeycrisp is particularly susceptible. Penn State has developed a new model for predicting bitter pit potential.

Blush and ground color changes as fruit mature. Photo: Brianne Redman
July 28, 2017

This is the second year of a grower-funded project to routinely assess fruit starch levels, ground color and other maturity indices to allow growers to make improved decisions about optimum harvest dates for long-term storage.

Codling moth injured apple fruit. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
July 28, 2017

Late July and the beginning of August indicates the time to again intensify the careful management of internal fruit feeders such as codling moth (CM) and Oriental fruit moths (OFM) and leafrollers such as tufted apple bud moth (TABM) and to a lesser degree, obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR).

July 26, 2017

A fruit and vegetable meeting on August 17, 5 to 8 pm, at the Western Maryland Research and Education Center will feature applied research as well as the opportunity to interact with University of MD and Penn State Extension specialists.

Brown marmorated stink bug adult on apple. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
July 21, 2017

Pheromone traps are the best indicators for controlling CM and OFM. Detection of live BMSB nymphs in traps placed in orchards warrants an immediate insecticide application.

Postharvest fungicide sprays are necessary to prevent defoliation from cherry leaf spot. Photo: K. Peter, Penn State
July 18, 2017

Conditions may be optimal for several fungal and bacterial pome and stone fruit diseases in July.

Japanese beetles feeding on nectarine fruit. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
July 7, 2017

Japanese beetles (JB) are frequently being observed in most fruit orchards and causing severe injuries to foliage by skeletonizing of leaves.

Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
July 3, 2017

The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit.

Brown marmorated stink bug injury on apple. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
June 23, 2017

The flights of the first generation adults of tufted apple bud moth, obliquebanded leafroller and codling moth are almost completed in most Pennsylvania orchards.

Photo 1. Obliquebanded leafroller injured new growth on apple tree. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
June 16, 2017

The adults of the first generation tufted apple bud moth (TABM) and obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR) continue to fly in most Pennsylvania orchards.

Photo: Tara Baugher
June 12, 2017

Fruit surface color is complex because it can be influenced by genetics and mutations, environmental factors, crop load, plant nutrition, plant stresses, and plant growth regulators.

Photo: T. Baugher, Penn State
May 30, 2017

This is the last run of the season. I suspect that fruit size is or soon will be too large to provide adequate response to thinner application.

 Be vigilant and scout for apple scab! Photo: K. Peter, Penn State
May 26, 2017

Diseases for the fruit grower radar and their management strategies are discussed as we wrap up May and begin June.

Too late to manage peach leaf curl when symptoms are present. Photo: K. Peter, Penn State
May 26, 2017

Peach leaf curl has caught many folks off guard this year. Tips for preventing the disease next season are discussed.

Growing apple terminal injured by Obliquebanded leafroller (June). Photo: Greg Krawczyk
May 26, 2017

The 2017 biofix for the first brood tufted apple bud moth (TABM) at the Penn State orchards in Biglerville was established on May 1st while for the obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR) on May 20th.

The Equilifruit disc. Photo: J. Schupp, Penn State
May 25, 2017

It will soon be time to start hand thinning and applying return bloom sprays to apple orchards.

Frost crevices on Ginger Gold. Photo: R. Crassweller
May 22, 2017

Today most sites were calling for thinner application at your standard rates.

Conditions are favorable for fire blight spread: be alert! Photo: K. Peter, Penn State
May 19, 2017

Beware of fire blight and bacterial spot conditions! Ideal conditions have been present for bacterial diseases to be problematic. Growers are encouraged to scout for fire blight.

Codling moth injured apple fruit. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
May 19, 2017

During a normal season in orchards with a pest pressure, the seasonal management of the codling moth (CM) larvae should be initiated at around 250 DD50 (Degree Days base 50F) after the biofix (April 25 in the Penn State FREC orchards).

Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 19, 2017

We finally experienced some warmer temperatures where the true PGR materials are more effective.

Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 15, 2017

Over the weekend most sites showed a positive balance of carbohydrates, meaning trees were less responsive to applications of chemical thinners.

8mm fruit size in Erie on May 11, 2017. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 12, 2017

One veteran pomologist made the comment that “something unique will occur every year that you did not ever experience before.” This year seems to bear out that axiom.

10mm diameter fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 8, 2017

We are continuing to experience unusually cold weather across the state, and growers will need to continue to wait for a thinning window.

Plum Curculio adult on young apple fruit. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
May 5, 2017

All pheromone traps for monitoring the most common fruit pests should already be in place in orchards.

May 1, 2017

The orchard site near the North East, PA Escarpment hit full bloom on Wednesday April 26 and is now included in our tables and charts.

Peach shoot injured by Oriental fruit moth larvae. Photo: G. Krawczyk, Penn State
April 28, 2017

The warm weather and the accumulation of degree days, which in Pennsylvania are on pace with 2012 spring conditions, moved the development of plants and insect pests very rapidly forward.

Bitter pit begins to show up on Honeycrisp several weeks before harvest and the incidence can increase two- to four-fold after a month in storage. Photo: Tara Baugher
April 28, 2017

Multiple years of studies in grower orchards are providing additional clues for managing Honeycrisp in the orchard to prevent bitter pit following storage.

Protect any trees still in bloom: Fire blight conditions ideal April 29 through May 2. (Photo: K. Peter)
April 28, 2017

Conditions are optimal for fire blight, apple scab, and rust infections. Growers are encouraged to keep trees protected. Other diseases for the fruit grower radar are also discussed.

The video “Apples for the Retail Market” provides Dr. Rob Crassweller’s recommendations for varieties to grow for a farm market or retail stand.
April 27, 2017

The Penn State Extension Tree Fruit team has created videos to refresh growers on innovative growing techniques for the start of the 2017 growing season.

 Shortly after tree growth begins, gently remove the 3 developing shoots below the leader to eliminate competition for leader growth. Photo: Tara Baugher
April 27, 2017

Timely tree training and integrated management of newly planted trees will ensure the success and future profitability of high density apple plantings.

Apple flowers, 2016. Photo: Rob Crassweller, Penn State
April 26, 2017

Cloudy, warm weather may result in a greater tree response to chemical thinners this week.

Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
April 26, 2017

The reliability of the Cornell carbohydrate thinning model forecast is dependent on weather forecasts.

Photo: T. Baugher, Penn State
April 24, 2017

A few more weather stations are in full bloom. Normal rates of chemical thinners were recommended for the weekend, and decreased rates are suggested for the next 4 days.

Be proactive about fire blight management: Let’s not repeat 2014. (Photo: B. Lehman)
April 21, 2017

Conditions are favorable for fire blight and apple scab. Additional tools for the fire blight management toolbox are discussed.

Photo: Tara Baugher, Penn State
April 20, 2017

Warm weather this past weekend pushed apple flower development, and growers will be looking for windows of opportunity for the application of chemical thinners.

Control for fire blight and apple scab is critical during bloom. (Photo: K. Peter)
April 17, 2017

Bloom is well underway in parts of PA and MD. Fire blight and scab disease conditions are in full force now. Growers are encouraged to protect trees.

Oriental fruit moth adult. Photo: G. Krawczyk
April 14, 2017

Despite the calendar indicating just the middle of April, all stone fruits and even some apple cultivars in southern Pennsylvania are already in bloom.

Satsuma plum in bloom. Photo: T. Baugher
March 31, 2017

While I panicked in February, the warm March weather slowed flower development and as it turned out, March was colder than February.

March 30, 2017

This Penn State Extension publication, in Spanish and English, is designed for use by orchard employees - often the first individuals to detect a new occurrence of a fruit disease or insect pest.

Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
March 10, 2017

Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk.

Isoxaben may be very useful to newly planted orchards. Photo: Rob Crassweller
March 10, 2017

We just finished winter tree fruit meetings during which I talked about some new herbicide registrations.

Dormant copper sprays are encouraged to help keep diseases in check. (Photo: K. Peter)
March 10, 2017

Consider applying dormant sprays soon to manage fungal and bacterial diseases this season.

March 7, 2017

The updated Penn State Extension Spray Record-Keeping Spreadsheet for apples, pears, peaches, and cherries is now available from Penn State Extension.

Copper sprays need to be applied prior to bud swell to manage peach leaf curl. (Photo: K. Peter)
March 3, 2017

Depending on your location, the warm weather over the last few weeks may have pushed some fruit trees along. For disease management, consider applying dormant copper and urea sprays soon.

February 28, 2017

Evaluating relationships between variables involves a statistical method called “regression analysis.”

Moldy core in Red Delicious. (Photo: K. Peter)
January 20, 2017

Moldy core is characterized by the growth of fungus mycelium within the apple fruit seed cavity, without penetration into the flesh of the fruit.

December 5, 2016

A new Sustainable Agriculture Educator, Megan Chawner, joined Penn State Extension in Lehigh and Northampton counties the beginning of December.

A declining tree with bark removed from graft union to show necrosis. Note numerous rootstock suckers. (Photo: K. Peter)
December 5, 2016

There is a mystery surrounding rapid apple decline/sudden apple decline of young, dwarf apple trees. For the last several years, there have been many reports in Pennsylvania and, most recently, in the Northeast and states south about unusual sudden decline of young, dwarf apple trees.

Be sure to remove cankers from trees when pruning. (Photo: K. Peter)
December 5, 2016

Sanitation is the best offense for disease management, especially when it comes to canker removal.

Videos have been translated into Spanish by native speakers to explain horticultural topics important to Hispanic and Latino fruit producers.
December 2, 2016

The Penn State Extension Tree Fruit team has created new videos for Spanish speaking fruit growers.

November 30, 2016

In general, apples matured slightly earlier than normal this year.

November 18, 2016

After a busy harvest season, there are still several jobs to be done and one of those important jobs is pruning.

Learn Now videos allow fruit growers to access information from Penn State researchers when it best fits into their schedule.
October 28, 2016

The Penn State Extension Tree Fruit team has created new videos for fruit growers. These ten minute ‘Learn Now’ videos are short, to-the-point guides explaining topics that are fundamental to commercial orchard intensification and efficiency.

Take care of fallen scabby leaves to prevent scab infection in 2017. (Photo: K. Peter)
October 28, 2016

Growers can get a jump on disease management for the 2017 season this fall. This month’s article will be a review of tips to manage apple scab, peach leaf curl, and cherry leaf spot.

Closely mowed row middles make it easier for predators to see and catch any potential rodents. Photo: Rob Crassweller
October 27, 2016

With the onset of colder temperatures at the end of the harvest, there are still things that need to get done in the orchard before winter.

Honeycrisp apples spot-picked on August 19, 2016 at Keedysville, MD. Photo: Chris Walsh
October 13, 2016

Honeycrisp is a wildly popular apple variety. While it has outstanding crispness and flavor, it has its faults.

Despite their lack of red color, Fuji are beginning to lose starch. Cripps Pink maturity appears to be about 10 days ahead of schedule. Aztec Fuji (Left), Nagafu Fuji (Center) and Cripps Pink (Right). (Photo by Chris Walsh)
October 7, 2016

During August and September we saw apples mature a bit earlier than normal. Once mature, they quickly tree-ripened. The hot, dry weather and full sun exposure of tall-spindle trees compressed the harvest window. This earliness and rapid ripening has continued with Fuji and Cripps Pink.

Adult brown marmorated stink bug on mature apple. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
October 3, 2016

During the last four weeks we have observed a very sharp increase in the number of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults collected in various monitoring traps placed around orchards located in southern Pennsylvania. After relatively lower levels of infestation on fruit observed during the last two seasons, this 2016 harvest seems to bring back a serious BMSB challenge.

In Aztec Fuji, starch had cleared from the core region and was also disappearing from the fruit flesh. Photo: Chris Walsh
September 30, 2016

During August and September we saw apples mature a bit earlier than normal, but once mature, they quickly tree-ripened. Due to the hot, dry weather, and the full sun exposure of trees managed as tall-spindles, the harvest window was compressed. This week, we began sampling late-season varieties, Fuji and Cripps Pink. While Fuji fruit lacks red color, fruit ripening has already begun.

Bitter rot spores on the surface of the lesion arranged in a concentric ring. (Photo: K. Peter)
September 30, 2016

There have been many reports of bitter rot on apple while fruit are being harvested. With Mother Nature recently dumping a ton of rain, which will have washed off any plant protection materials, growers are encouraged to apply protectants to apple varieties that have yet to be harvested. Tips for identification and late season management are discussed.

Maturity and red color development of Daybreak Fuji (upper row), Aztec Fuji (middle-row) and Nagafu Fuji (lower row) picked this week from tall-spindle plantings at Keedysville, MD. Photo: Kathy Hunt
September 23, 2016

During our August and September sampling we have seen apples mature a little earlier than normal, but then quickly tree-ripen. Between the hot, dry weather and the full sun exposure of trees on size-controlling rootstocks, the harvest window for each of the early varieties has been compressed. Fruits moved quickly from storage-ready to tree-ripe and when left unharvested became destined for cider. This rapid tree ripening can lead to softer apples with poorer quality of late-harvested fruit destined for cold storage.

Daybreak Fuji fruit were surprisingly soft, with a median firmness of 13.2 pounds.
September 16, 2016

Fruit have quickly progressed from storage-mature to tree-ripe. In many cases fruits in commercial orchards have softened quickly and wound up being picked for cider. This rapid ripening may also reduce the quality of late-harvested apples, and growers are advised to carefully time harvest based on maturity indices.

September 7, 2016

This grower-supported apple maturity update focuses on new apple varieties grown at the University of Maryland orchard in Keedysville, to provide pertinent information ahead of the picking dates for growers further north.

September 2, 2016

This grower-supported maturity update focuses on new apple varieties grown at the University of Maryland orchard in Keedysville, to collect pertinent information on fruit maturity ahead of the typical picking dates for growers further north.

Brown marmorated stink bug on maturing apple fruit. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
September 2, 2016

The numbers of brown marmorated stink bug adults are increasing in many orchards. Codling moth adults will be active for at least another 2 to 3 weeks. The fourth generation Oriental fruit moth adults are likely to be present in orchards during all of September and into October.

Three Brookfield Gala apple fruit grown at Keedysville with stem end cracking. Those with small cracks like the apple shown in the upper left had a starch pattern index of at least 6 on the 8 point scale. Photo: C.S. Walsh
August 26, 2016

This grower-supported apple maturity update focuses on new apple varieties grown at the University of Maryland orchard in Keedysville, a warm, low-elevation site in southern Washington County, MD.

If ripe fruit are not kept cold, Rhizopus rot can take over very quickly. (Photo: K. Peter)
August 26, 2016

Management strategies are discussed for mitigating the postharvest disease Rhizopus rot on peaches and nectarines.

Protect your fruit: bitter rot on apple can wreak havoc in the orchard. (Photo: K. Peter)
August 26, 2016

A review of managing pre- and postharvest apple fruit rots is discussed. Alternative rot management strategies are included.

August 25, 2016

Employers must often keep up with a variety of required government posters at their orchards, farms, or other places of business which can be daunting at times. Earlier this month, the U.S. Department of Labor changed two posters that employers are required to post in the workplace.

Photo 1: Honeycrisp apples spot-picked this week at Keedysville, MD. Photo: Chris Walsh
August 19, 2016

For the past few weeks we have been posting information for Brookfield Gala fruit from Keedysville, along with Honeycrisp and Premier Honeycrisp from Mt. Ridge Farms.

Post-harvest research laboratory photo of fruit maturity measurements. (Photo: Chris Walsh)
August 12, 2016

Comparisons of Premier Honeycrisp, Brookfield Gala and Honeycrisp.

Brown marmorated stink bug adult. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
August 5, 2016

Codling moth (CM) second generation adults are very active in most Pennsylvania pome fruit orchards. All stages of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) including young summer adult bugs are being observed in and outside of orchards. The third and probably fourth generation Oriental fruit moth (OFM) adults are also active in both, pome and stone fruit orchards.

Comparisons of background color and starch pattern of Premier Honeycrisp (left) and Honeycrisp (right). Photo: C. Walsh.
August 4, 2016

With an early bloom, many people have been expecting an earlier harvest this year. This initial week’s sampling of Premier Honeycrisp and Honeycrisp indicates that Premier may be ready to be spot-picked as early as next week.

July 29, 2016

Penn State Extension and Pennsylvania growers and packers cooperated with Cornell University in storage trials to assess ways to reduce postharvest disorders in Honeycrisp. Implications from the study are: 1) If risk of bitter pit is high, fruit should be stored without conditioning and marketed earlier than conditioned fruit. 2) Fruit with low bitter pit risk should be conditioned and stored at 38°F if storage periods are uncertain.

Blush and ground color changes as fruit mature. Photo: C. Walsh.
July 29, 2016

Routine assessments of fruit starch levels, ground color and other maturity indices allow growers to make improved decisions about optimum harvest dates for long-term storage. During August through the end of October, 2016, Fruit Times subscribers will receive weekly summaries on changes in fruit maturity and will also be directed to more comprehensive information at the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Seasonal Update site.

July 29, 2016

Moths of the second generation codling moth, third generation of Oriental fruit moth and the second generations of tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller are active and, if present, the injuries caused by juvenile larval stages will be observed at harvest. Woolly apple aphid (WAA) colonies are being observed in many orchards across the region. Control at the correct timing will help manage second summer generation of San Jose scale crawlers. Adult brown marmorated stink bugs will soon move into orchards from surrounding vegetation. Plan ahead with the choice of products utilized against BMSB, and preserve the most effective options for when the pressure from this pest will increase in the later part of the season.

Protect peaches and nectarines from brown rot (Photo: K. Peter).
July 29, 2016

With peach season in full swing, a review of management strategies for controlling brown rot is discussed.

July 28, 2016

In late 2015 the Environmental Protection Agency issued the long awaited revision to the Worker Protection Standard (WPS). Although it is now technically active it will not be enforced until 2017 but the original WPS will still be enforced until the end of 2016. Please keep in mind that the WPS covers both restricted use AND general use pesticides. This article will deal with the highlights to the revision but also some areas of the current WPS that need emphasized.

July 27, 2016

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) have been renamed and are now referred to as Safety Data Sheets (SDS). According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Hazard Communication Standard requires the new format starting on June 1, 2016. One of the primary reasons for the change is that OSHA requires all SDSs to use a standard format.

Brown marmorated stink bug adult. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
July 15, 2016

According to moth captures in sex pheromone traps located in various orchards in south-central PA, the flight of the third generation Oriental fruit moth (OFM) and the second generation of codling moth (CM) just started this past week. It is probably still too early to initiate control of those pests, however at some locations control may be needed within the next 7-14 days.

Bacterial spot on peach leaves still needs to be managed despite no fruit on the tree. (Photo: K. Peter)
July 1, 2016

The latest information that growers need to know for apple scab, fire blight, sooty blotch and flyspeck, rots, bacterial spot, and cherry leaf spot.

The PSU Tree Fruit Path Lab is in need of 2016 fire blight samples. (Photo: K. Peter)
July 1, 2016

The Tree Fruit Pathology Lab at FREC is seeking fire blight samples again this season from around the state of Pennsylvania in commercial orchards and home landscapes for evaluation for antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacteria and other projects. If you have fire blight present in your orchard/yard, please contact Dr. Kari Peter for instructions for sampling.

Photo 1. Growing apple terminals injured by Oriental fruit moth larvae. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
July 1, 2016

July is usually a good month to assess the results of early season insect pest management practices and to make sure nothing will be missed for the remaining of the season. Early July also marks the beginning of a much higher pressure from brown marmorated stink bug nymphs and summer adults.

Orange rust stunting black raspberry plant. Note the “spindly” elongated shoots. Photo credit: Mike Ellis
July 1, 2016

We all get a little rusty as we get older, but one thing that we don’t want to see getting rusty is our brambles. There are several rust diseases that affect brambles. I’m just going to focus on orange rust, which is the most important rust disease in the northeast. We are definitely seeing a bit of orange rust this year, with the cool wet springs. You’ll see this disease on blackberries, black raspberries and purple raspberries. Orange rust does not affect red raspberries.

June 28, 2016

Bumble bees have discriminating palettes when it comes to their pollen meals, according to researchers at Penn State. The researchers found that bumble bees can detect the nutritional quality of pollen, and that this ability helps them selectively forage among plant species to optimize their diets.

Japanese beetle adults feeding on grape foliage. Photo: G. Krawczyk
June 27, 2016

This past week we started to see a significant buildup in the numbers of Japanese beetles in many orchards located in southern Pennsylvania. The nymphs of brown marmorated stink are now present in orchards, which indicates a shift from “probable injuries” to actual nymphal feeding (and injuries) on fruit. The end of June is a good time to search for the first male adults of spotted wing drosophila, and traps are a very effective tool to detect increasing populations of SWD.

Photo 1. Brown marmorated stink bug hatched eggs, first instar and freshly molted second instar nymphs. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
June 17, 2016

We continue to observe a strong presence of codling moth adults in pheromone traps placed in commercial apple orchards. Despite the codling moth developmental model suggesting the end of the codling moth egg hatch period (95% eggs hatched by June 25), the presence of moths in the traps in the next few weeks still warrants extended management activities.

Growing apple terminal injured by Obliquebanded leafroller (June). Photo: Greg Krawczyk
June 3, 2016

This past week (June 1) we finally captured the first moths of obliquebanded leafroller in pheromone traps. This completes the list of establishing important biofixes for the 2016 season. While the first biofix for the earliest active species, redbanded leafroller happened on March 22 (a tie for the earliest ever), the obliquebanded leafroller biofix was one of the latest on record for the Biglerville area. Looking at the degree day accumulation, it appears we are back to an “average year,” with a very similar accumulation of degree days base 43 as during the 2015 season.

MyIPM-NED app: disease management for apples, pears, cherries, and cranberries at your fingertips.
June 3, 2016

A new smartphone application, called MyIPM-NED, was developed to promote integrated disease management for apples, pears, cherries, and cranberries and is available for free for Android and iOS devices. These apps are also able to be used on tablets, as well.

The Year of Rust: Cedar apple rust infection an apple leaf. Photo: K. Peter
June 3, 2016

Although we experienced several cool, cloudy weeks, those conditions didn’t deter the bacteria and fungi in the orchard. As the temperatures are warming up and the humidity rolling in, disease symptoms are becoming more apparent. Recommendations for several apple and stone fruit diseases folks need to be mindful of are discussed.

June 3, 2016

This will be the last published run of the Cornell carbohydrate model for determining apple thinning rates and timings. You can still go to the web site and run the model but the model will not give you a recommendation. As I mentioned in the last posting you can interpret the 4 Day Average Balance by looking at the recommendation chart in the "More Info” tab.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 27 - 30
May 31, 2016

The window for thinner applications is rapidly closing in the south central and eastern part of the state. Four day carbohydrate average balances for the most part are positive numbers representing the fact that shoot growth is rapidly increasing as shoots become net exporters and the response to thinners is more difficult.

Scout for scab infections: brownish velvety lesions on the underside of leaves. (Photo: K. Peter)
May 27, 2016

We had optimal conditions for apple scab infections this month and it’s time to start scouting the orchard for possible infection. Fire blight symptoms have been slow due to the chilly weather over the last several weeks; however, with the warm weather this week, fire blight may become more symptomatic. Be vigilant when scouting for fire blight and prune infections as soon as possible. In addition: newly planted blocks that may be blooming need protection to prevent blossom blight right now.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 24 - 26
May 27, 2016

As we suggested last week and early this week the temperatures and solar radiation levels are very high setting up 4 Day Average Balances that are quite negative for all the sites.

Estimated daily carbohydrate balance for May 24th to 30th.
May 24, 2016

The weather has finally broken with temperatures in Adams County to be in the 80s for most of the week. Today’s run does not contain as many sites due to discrepancies in some of the data reported to Rainwise.

Discolored foliage caused by early season rosy apple aphid feeding.
May 23, 2016

The codling moth egg hatch developmental model provided by SkyBit Inc., initiated on May 7 (biofix in Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center orchards), forecasts about 5 to 10 percent egg hatch to occur on May 30 for the Biglerville area. This is an optimal timing to initiate management activities against codling moth.