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Range of Premier Honeycrisp maturities for the whole tree strip-picked on August 15, 2017.  Fruits were hand-sorted in the laboratory for a storage study, using 1962 USDA Golden Delicious Color Chips. Photo: Kathy Hunt, University of Maryland
August 17, 2017

Week 3 maturity assessments indicate a need to be ready for an early apple harvest and possible spray applications to prevent preharvest drop.

Buckeye Gala (left) Premier Honeycrisp (right) Photos: T. Baugher, Penn State
August 11, 2017

This week, maturity of Premier Honeycrisp, Honeycrisp and two red Gala cultivars are compared.

Honeycrisp (right) Ultima Gala (left) Photo: Kathleen W. Hunt, University of Maryland
August 2, 2017

Yesterday we collected our first fruit samples for assessments of the maturity of Premier Honeycrisp, Honeycrisp, Buckeye Gala, and Ultima Gala.

Photo: Sladjana Prozo
July 28, 2017

Bitter pit severity varies with cultivar and season, but Honeycrisp is particularly susceptible. Penn State has developed a new model for predicting bitter pit potential.

Blush and ground color changes as fruit mature. Photo: Brianne Redman
July 28, 2017

This is the second year of a grower-funded project to routinely assess fruit starch levels, ground color and other maturity indices to allow growers to make improved decisions about optimum harvest dates for long-term storage.

July 26, 2017

A fruit and vegetable meeting on August 17, 5 to 8 pm, at the Western Maryland Research and Education Center will feature applied research as well as the opportunity to interact with University of MD and Penn State Extension specialists.

Ambrosia fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
July 3, 2017

The Mid-Atlantic region is blessed with an abundant supply of good fertile soils that can produce high quality deciduous fruit.

Photo: Tara Baugher
June 12, 2017

Fruit surface color is complex because it can be influenced by genetics and mutations, environmental factors, crop load, plant nutrition, plant stresses, and plant growth regulators.

Photo: T. Baugher, Penn State
May 30, 2017

This is the last run of the season. I suspect that fruit size is or soon will be too large to provide adequate response to thinner application.

The Equilifruit disc. Photo: J. Schupp, Penn State
May 25, 2017

It will soon be time to start hand thinning and applying return bloom sprays to apple orchards.

Site preparation for a "Model for the Future" apple planting in Adams County, PA. Photo: Tara Baugher
May 24, 2017

Have you recently pushed out a block of older fruit trees? In commercial grower plots, we are learning that sudangrass is an excellent first step to replant success.

Frost crevices on Ginger Gold. Photo: R. Crassweller
May 22, 2017

Today most sites were calling for thinner application at your standard rates.

Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 19, 2017

We finally experienced some warmer temperatures where the true PGR materials are more effective.

Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 15, 2017

Over the weekend most sites showed a positive balance of carbohydrates, meaning trees were less responsive to applications of chemical thinners.

8mm fruit size in Erie on May 11, 2017. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 12, 2017

One veteran pomologist made the comment that “something unique will occur every year that you did not ever experience before.” This year seems to bear out that axiom.

10mm diameter fruit. Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
May 8, 2017

We are continuing to experience unusually cold weather across the state, and growers will need to continue to wait for a thinning window.

May 1, 2017

The orchard site near the North East, PA Escarpment hit full bloom on Wednesday April 26 and is now included in our tables and charts.

Bitter pit begins to show up on Honeycrisp several weeks before harvest and the incidence can increase two- to four-fold after a month in storage. Photo: Tara Baugher
April 28, 2017

Multiple years of studies in grower orchards are providing additional clues for managing Honeycrisp in the orchard to prevent bitter pit following storage.

Apple flowers, 2016. Photo: Rob Crassweller, Penn State
April 26, 2017

Cloudy, warm weather may result in a greater tree response to chemical thinners this week.

Photo: R. Crassweller, Penn State
April 26, 2017

The reliability of the Cornell carbohydrate thinning model forecast is dependent on weather forecasts.

Photo: T. Baugher, Penn State
April 24, 2017

A few more weather stations are in full bloom. Normal rates of chemical thinners were recommended for the weekend, and decreased rates are suggested for the next 4 days.

Photo: Tara Baugher, Penn State
April 20, 2017

Warm weather this past weekend pushed apple flower development, and growers will be looking for windows of opportunity for the application of chemical thinners.

Satsuma plum in bloom. Photo: T. Baugher
March 31, 2017

While I panicked in February, the warm March weather slowed flower development and as it turned out, March was colder than February.

Photo: Mark Seetin
March 30, 2017

Christina Grozinger, Director of the Center for Pollinator Research at Penn State, discusses a holistic approach to fixing the pollinator problem.

March 30, 2017

This Penn State Extension publication, in Spanish and English, is designed for use by orchard employees - often the first individuals to detect a new occurrence of a fruit disease or insect pest.

March 10, 2017

Penn State Extension held nine regional educational meetings for commercial tree fruit growers this winter.

Tyvek® tree guard. Photo: Rob Crassweller
March 10, 2017

Some of the burn-down herbicides have been implicated as possible causes of damage to young tree trunks that have green tissue on portions of the lower trunk.

March 7, 2017

The updated Penn State Extension Spray Record-Keeping Spreadsheet for apples, pears, peaches, and cherries is now available from Penn State Extension.

February 28, 2017

Evaluating relationships between variables involves a statistical method called “regression analysis.”

January 26, 2017

Research in the college helps shape the apple industry.

Excessive vigor leads to poor calcium levels. Photo: Rob Crassweller
January 19, 2017

We heard and saw many problems with calcium deficiencies in commercial orchards this past year. I thought it would be a good idea to review how the 2016 growing season may have impacted those problems.

G.935 is replant tolerant, but is susceptible to some latent viruses, highlighting the importance of choosing rootstocks that best fit your own unique orchard conditions. Photo by Rob Crassweller
December 27, 2016

I spent most of the summer writing a review paper on apple rootstocks and came across quite a bit of information that might be of interest to commercial fruit growers.

Videos have been translated into Spanish by native speakers to explain horticultural topics important to Hispanic and Latino fruit producers.
December 2, 2016

The Penn State Extension Tree Fruit team has created new videos for Spanish speaking fruit growers.

November 30, 2016

In general, apples matured slightly earlier than normal this year.

Honeycrisp apples spot-picked on August 19, 2016 at Keedysville, MD. Photo: Chris Walsh
October 13, 2016

Honeycrisp is a wildly popular apple variety. While it has outstanding crispness and flavor, it has its faults.

Despite their lack of red color, Fuji are beginning to lose starch. Cripps Pink maturity appears to be about 10 days ahead of schedule. Aztec Fuji (Left), Nagafu Fuji (Center) and Cripps Pink (Right). (Photo by Chris Walsh)
October 7, 2016

During August and September we saw apples mature a bit earlier than normal. Once mature, they quickly tree-ripened. The hot, dry weather and full sun exposure of tall-spindle trees compressed the harvest window. This earliness and rapid ripening has continued with Fuji and Cripps Pink.

In Aztec Fuji, starch had cleared from the core region and was also disappearing from the fruit flesh. Photo: Chris Walsh
September 30, 2016

During August and September we saw apples mature a bit earlier than normal, but once mature, they quickly tree-ripened. Due to the hot, dry weather, and the full sun exposure of trees managed as tall-spindles, the harvest window was compressed. This week, we began sampling late-season varieties, Fuji and Cripps Pink. While Fuji fruit lacks red color, fruit ripening has already begun.

Maturity and red color development of Daybreak Fuji (upper row), Aztec Fuji (middle-row) and Nagafu Fuji (lower row) picked this week from tall-spindle plantings at Keedysville, MD. Photo: Kathy Hunt
September 23, 2016

During our August and September sampling we have seen apples mature a little earlier than normal, but then quickly tree-ripen. Between the hot, dry weather and the full sun exposure of trees on size-controlling rootstocks, the harvest window for each of the early varieties has been compressed. Fruits moved quickly from storage-ready to tree-ripe and when left unharvested became destined for cider. This rapid tree ripening can lead to softer apples with poorer quality of late-harvested fruit destined for cold storage.

Daybreak Fuji fruit were surprisingly soft, with a median firmness of 13.2 pounds.
September 16, 2016

Fruit have quickly progressed from storage-mature to tree-ripe. In many cases fruits in commercial orchards have softened quickly and wound up being picked for cider. This rapid ripening may also reduce the quality of late-harvested apples, and growers are advised to carefully time harvest based on maturity indices.

September 7, 2016

This grower-supported apple maturity update focuses on new apple varieties grown at the University of Maryland orchard in Keedysville, to provide pertinent information ahead of the picking dates for growers further north.

September 2, 2016

This grower-supported maturity update focuses on new apple varieties grown at the University of Maryland orchard in Keedysville, to collect pertinent information on fruit maturity ahead of the typical picking dates for growers further north.

Three Brookfield Gala apple fruit grown at Keedysville with stem end cracking. Those with small cracks like the apple shown in the upper left had a starch pattern index of at least 6 on the 8 point scale. Photo: C.S. Walsh
August 26, 2016

This grower-supported apple maturity update focuses on new apple varieties grown at the University of Maryland orchard in Keedysville, a warm, low-elevation site in southern Washington County, MD.

Photo 1: Honeycrisp apples spot-picked this week at Keedysville, MD. Photo: Chris Walsh
August 19, 2016

For the past few weeks we have been posting information for Brookfield Gala fruit from Keedysville, along with Honeycrisp and Premier Honeycrisp from Mt. Ridge Farms.

Ag-Bio Dead-Inn pyramid and Rescue BMSB traps.
August 19, 2016

While the harvest of peaches and nectarines is in a full swing and it is only a matter of a couple of weeks when we will start the fully fledged harvest of apples, it is still important to remember that some important fruit pests are still active and can cause damage of fruit.

Post-harvest research laboratory photo of fruit maturity measurements. (Photo: Chris Walsh)
August 12, 2016

Comparisons of Premier Honeycrisp, Brookfield Gala and Honeycrisp.

Comparisons of background color and starch pattern of Premier Honeycrisp (left) and Honeycrisp (right). Photo: C. Walsh.
August 4, 2016

With an early bloom, many people have been expecting an earlier harvest this year. This initial week’s sampling of Premier Honeycrisp and Honeycrisp indicates that Premier may be ready to be spot-picked as early as next week.

July 29, 2016

Penn State Extension and Pennsylvania growers and packers cooperated with Cornell University in storage trials to assess ways to reduce postharvest disorders in Honeycrisp. Implications from the study are: 1) If risk of bitter pit is high, fruit should be stored without conditioning and marketed earlier than conditioned fruit. 2) Fruit with low bitter pit risk should be conditioned and stored at 38°F if storage periods are uncertain.

Blush and ground color changes as fruit mature. Photo: C. Walsh.
July 29, 2016

Routine assessments of fruit starch levels, ground color and other maturity indices allow growers to make improved decisions about optimum harvest dates for long-term storage. During August through the end of October, 2016, Fruit Times subscribers will receive weekly summaries on changes in fruit maturity and will also be directed to more comprehensive information at the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Seasonal Update site.

Protect peaches and nectarines from brown rot (Photo: K. Peter).
July 29, 2016

With peach season in full swing, a review of management strategies for controlling brown rot is discussed.

Orange rust stunting black raspberry plant. Note the “spindly” elongated shoots. Photo credit: Mike Ellis
July 1, 2016

We all get a little rusty as we get older, but one thing that we don’t want to see getting rusty is our brambles. There are several rust diseases that affect brambles. I’m just going to focus on orange rust, which is the most important rust disease in the northeast. We are definitely seeing a bit of orange rust this year, with the cool wet springs. You’ll see this disease on blackberries, black raspberries and purple raspberries. Orange rust does not affect red raspberries.

Photo 1. Brown marmorated stink bug hatched eggs, first instar and freshly molted second instar nymphs. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
June 17, 2016

We continue to observe a strong presence of codling moth adults in pheromone traps placed in commercial apple orchards. Despite the codling moth developmental model suggesting the end of the codling moth egg hatch period (95% eggs hatched by June 25), the presence of moths in the traps in the next few weeks still warrants extended management activities.

The Year of Rust: Cedar apple rust infection an apple leaf. Photo: K. Peter
June 3, 2016

Although we experienced several cool, cloudy weeks, those conditions didn’t deter the bacteria and fungi in the orchard. As the temperatures are warming up and the humidity rolling in, disease symptoms are becoming more apparent. Recommendations for several apple and stone fruit diseases folks need to be mindful of are discussed.

June 3, 2016

This will be the last published run of the Cornell carbohydrate model for determining apple thinning rates and timings. You can still go to the web site and run the model but the model will not give you a recommendation. As I mentioned in the last posting you can interpret the 4 Day Average Balance by looking at the recommendation chart in the "More Info” tab.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 27 - 30
May 31, 2016

The window for thinner applications is rapidly closing in the south central and eastern part of the state. Four day carbohydrate average balances for the most part are positive numbers representing the fact that shoot growth is rapidly increasing as shoots become net exporters and the response to thinners is more difficult.

Scout for scab infections: brownish velvety lesions on the underside of leaves. (Photo: K. Peter)
May 27, 2016

We had optimal conditions for apple scab infections this month and it’s time to start scouting the orchard for possible infection. Fire blight symptoms have been slow due to the chilly weather over the last several weeks; however, with the warm weather this week, fire blight may become more symptomatic. Be vigilant when scouting for fire blight and prune infections as soon as possible. In addition: newly planted blocks that may be blooming need protection to prevent blossom blight right now.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 24 - 26
May 27, 2016

As we suggested last week and early this week the temperatures and solar radiation levels are very high setting up 4 Day Average Balances that are quite negative for all the sites.

Estimated daily carbohydrate balance for May 24th to 30th.
May 24, 2016

The weather has finally broken with temperatures in Adams County to be in the 80s for most of the week. Today’s run does not contain as many sites due to discrepancies in some of the data reported to Rainwise.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 16 - 20
May 20, 2016

The majority of the sites are showing a 4DB of slightly positive carbohydrate levels (3.07 to 15.15 g/day) to slightly negative(-2.12 to -16.32 g/day). The trend through the weekend into early next week shows positive 4DB for six of the sites.

Daily Carbohydrate Balance May 13 - 16
May 16, 2016

Pennsylvania had a little bit of everything in yesterday’s weather – snow, rain, wind, and cold temperatures.

May 13, 2016

Please note that we have added another site in Schuylkill County in Hegins, PA.

Figure 1. The Chemical Thinning Triangle.
May 10, 2016

Chemical thinning is a complex process that annually challenges the professional apple grower. In recent years, many growers have started using the MaluSim Carbon Balance Model to assist them in managing the crop load of their trees.

May 10, 2016

Generally we had the most sunshine Saturday and Sunday that we have had in over a week. Most sites are calling for a decrease in the rate of thinner

Delta style sex pheromone trap for monitoring Oriental fruit moth in orchards. Photo: Greg Krawczyk
May 6, 2016

The colder than usual weather during the last two weeks is slowing the normal activities of most insects, including the most important fruit pests. However, while some fruit pests may be slower to complete their development, the current weather will not prevent potential injuries.

May 3, 2016

More orchards have entered full bloom over the weekend. In some cases, there was as much as a week’s difference in full bloom with some cultivars.

April 29, 2016

After an early beginning to the growing season that saw green tip stage reached on average about 18 days ahead of last year, the weather cooled off and for stations reporting full bloom as of the morning of April 30, they are only 11 to 12 days ahead of last year. Obviously frost damage to flowers and spur leaves will be a compounding factor in deciding whether and when to thin this year.

In apples boron is commonly applied as a foliar spray either early in the spring or as a postharvest application. Photo: T. Baugher
April 29, 2016

Boron is one of the essential micronutrients for tree fruit. It helps in the fruit setting process by facilitating pollen development and subsequent pollen tube growth.

The tall spindle was developed as an offshoot of the slender spindle training system to take advantage of increased canopy volume by increasing tree height.
April 29, 2016

Many of you are replacing older orchards with newer varieties and newer training systems. One of the systems that is currently in vogue is the Tall Spindle System (TSS). It was proposed and developed largely by Terence Robinson at Cornell University. Its popularity is due to the simplicity of its pruning.

Well-Feathered Fuji/V6 at planting. Photo: R. Crassweller
April 29, 2016

We have been working with the Tall Spindle System (TSS) since 2008 with Jonagold/B9 and Daybreak Fuji/M.9 T337. We also have a planting established in 2010 with Aztec Fuji as an NC-140 uniform rootstock trial. In 2014 we established another NC-140 trial with Honeycrisp and Aztec Fuji on 7 and 6 rootstocks respectively.

April 26, 2016

Mike Basedow recently joined Penn State Extension in Adams County as an Extension Tree Fruit Assistant.

Oriental fruit moth larva(e) (Grapholita molesta). Photo: Clemson University, USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org
April 22, 2016

Unusually warm weather in March, despite relatively colder conditions in early April, pushed the development of most insect pests well ahead of a routine timetable.

In spite of the cold injury evident on these spur leaves, the apple flowers are viable. Spur leaf health will be an important consideration later in the season when growers adjust crop load. Photo: E. Winzeler.
April 15, 2016

Following an unseasonably warm month of March, a pair of cold fronts brought cold temperatures across much of the eastern United States in early April 2016. The cold weather was stressful, both for the fruit grower and the flowers!

Photo: green fruitworm (Orthosia hibisci), Whitney Cranshaw, Bugwood.org
April 14, 2016

We are seeing indications that the numbers of green fruitworms and rosy apple aphids will be high this season. Both pests tend to flare in a cool, wet spring due to suppression of predators and other biocontrols.

Dissection of peach flower bud with live pistil.
April 11, 2016

In light of the cold temperatures experienced recently, a call to your crop insurance agent may be in order. If you believe the recent low temperatures may have damaged your crop you have 72 hours to report the event to your insurance provider.

Peach trees are in full bloom in many orchards, while apple trees are at the tight cluster stage.
April 7, 2016

A series of advective freeze events have damaged fruit buds, and following an additional freeze this weekend, growers will want to assess crop potential. It can be discouraging to count the buds that didn't survive the cold, so focus on bud survival by using a technique Jim Schupp adapted from strategies to adjust crop load at thinning time.

April 7, 2016

Agriculture Handbook 66 (AH-66) represents a complete revision and major expansion of the 1986 edition. It has been reorganized and now includes 17 Chapters and 138 Commodity Summaries written by nearly a hundred experts in 792 pages.

Picture 1. Pheromone traps for Oriental fruit moth in peach orchard during the 2016 season. Photo: G. Krawczyk
April 1, 2016

The calendar still says March but it feels as though it is at least mid April. Be prepared to set out your sex pheromone traps earlier than normal, as they are the simplest tools to accurately establish biofix dates and to precisely monitor the trends in population development through the season. Warm temperatures resulted in increased activity of pear psylla adults, and pre-bloom application(s) of oil should slow down egg laying. San Jose scale nymphs become active when the sap begins to flow in the spring, and they should be controlled pre-bloom or during the first cover spray.

Network for Environment and Weather Applications (NEWA)
April 1, 2016

All current conditions point to an early spring and tree fruit bloom. At Rock Springs we had first bloom on Methley plums and pink on peaches on Friday March 25th. Last year we observed the same growth stage on April 29th!

April 1, 2016

Since 1980 weather patterns such as rainfall quantity and duration, temperature and extreme weather events have become increasingly erratic.

Aprovia is a new fungicide to help in the apple scab fight. (Photo: K. Peter)
April 1, 2016

Aprovia is a new fungicide (SDHI, FRAC group 7) available for pome fruit disease management. Due to crop safety concerns, BASF will be cancelling the pome fruit registration for Vivando.

March 31, 2016

A top-three “warm episode” (El Niño) brought some widely expected winter weather impacts to the U.S., but also provided some surprises. For example, atmospheric warmth in part supplied by the balmy central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean contributed to the nation’s warmest Decembe to -February period on record.

Green tip peeking through saying, “Be sure to protect me from apple scab!” Photo: K. Peter
March 15, 2016

Due to the presence of green tip on early varieties of apples combined with rain the last several days plus forecasted for the next two, we are in our first apple scab infection period for 2016. Protection is needed for vulnerable green tissue; a copper spray will be useful for trees not at green tip.

March 9, 2016: No green tip yet on Gala…but it will be soon! Photo: K. Peter
March 10, 2016

The first scab spores of the season have been detected; however, there is no scab infection risk until green tissue is present and there is an infection period. Since trees are pushing due to the warm weather the last several days, now is a good time to apply dormant copper sprays to manage diseases.

February 22, 2016

In a recent article I described some important aspects of designing field experiments to avoid biasing the data. The take home lesson was that treatments should be replicated and randomized. In this article I will describe methods to summarize and interpret the data resulting from field experiments with a single qualitative treatment variable.

January 15, 2016

When it comes to managing fire blight, the first line of defense is good sanitation, which is removing the overwintering source for the bacteria: cankers. Understanding what a canker is, being able to identify them in orchard, the importance of removal, and pruning strategies are discussed.

January 15, 2016

Revised every two years with input from Penn State faculty members, extension specialists and other consultants, this nearly 400-page production guide provides commercial fruit growers, extension educators, consultants, and others with the newest information on fruit culture, orchard nutrition, spraying, pesticides, storage of tree fruit crops, marketing, and management of weeds, insects, diseases and more.

Pruning just before a cold snap increases susceptibility to injury.
January 14, 2016

Unlike some flowering landscape trees, peaches, cherries, apples and pears originated in a temperate climate, similar to our own. They are well-adapted to our climate, even in an el Niño year. Most fruit trees went dormant this fall, and stayed dormant. Fruit trees begin to go dormant in response to shortening day length in the fall. Exposure to freezing temperatures accelerates the onset of dormancy. Although this past fall was warmer than usual, the fruit trees got the necessary signals and went into dormancy.

Example of a randomized complete block design layout for comparing treatments in a peach block. Treatments were applied to multiple-tree units in each of 4 rows in the block.
January 14, 2016

Research performed by universities is relatively expensive because we have to pay for the considerable infrastructure associated with research, including the salaries of trained researchers and technicians. Recently some growers have expressed a desire to perform their own research to save money.

January 11, 2016

Penn State graduate students and visiting scientists from other institutions play a critical role in many studies conducted at Penn State's Fruit Research and Extension Center in Biglerville, Adams County. And now, thanks to the financial support of the State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania, new graduate-student housing at the center will help ensure those contributions into the future.

Photo: Tara Baugher
November 18, 2015

Apples are a long-lived perennial crop, thus most fruit farms have several blocks of trees that vary in age and size. Many orchard enterprises have adopted intensive (≥518 trees per acre) orchard systems over the past 25 years. However, blocks of larger semi-dwarf trees at medium density still exist on many farms, and often these blocks still have a significant role to play in the orchard enterprise.

Different stages of infection of bitter rot on Honey Crisp.
October 30, 2015

Growers can get a jump on fungal and bacterial disease management for the 2016 season this fall. A review of tips to manage apple scab, fire blight, peach leaf curl, cherry leaf spot, bacterial canker, and fungal fruit rots are discussed.

Internal browning and breakdown in Olympic fruit harvested this week on the Eastern shore of Maryland.
October 8, 2015

Chris Walsh and Mike Newell, University of Maryland, report that there is an increased potential for internal browning and breakdown in 'Olympic' Asian pear fruit. Growers are advised to harvest ‘Olympic’ one to two weeks earlier this year to minimize consumer complaints and ensure adequate storage life.

September 24, 2015

Penn State Extension, in cooperation with University of Vermont Extension and Rutgers Extension has developed energy-saving resources for Northeast farmers. The information is now available at E-Extension and includes information specific to tree fruit production.

August 27, 2015

As apples mature, they begin to produce large amounts of the ripening hormone, ethylene. One of the ripening processes stimulated by ethylene is stem loosening.

Soggy breakdown on 2014 PA fruit. Photo courtesy of Yosef Al Shoffe, Cornell
August 27, 2015

There are many factors that affect Honeycrisp storage behavior, and some occur during harvest. Spot picking fruit at the optimum stage of maturity, compared to slightly immature, can reduce bitter pit, whereas soft scald and soggy breakdown can be reduced by harvesting fruit before it becomes over-mature.

August 26, 2015

Researchers at Penn State are investigating how solitary and wild bees are increasingly important in the pollination of crops.

Be sure to protect your fruit from rots: bitter rot on Red Delicious. (Photo credit: K. Peter)
August 24, 2015

The biggest disease concern this time of year is keeping fruit free of rots as they are nearing the home stretch of the season. The recent bouts of rain and prolonged warm weather are ideal conditions for fruit rot issues.

July 29, 2015

Make sure you know where apple scab overwinters, how to monitor and when it is most likely to appear. Penn State Tree Fruit Plant Pathologist Kari Peter provides some key points..

Oriental fruit moth (adult) Photo: Greg Krawczyk
July 27, 2015

The third generation of Oriental fruit moth and the second generation of codling moth are active in most orchards in south-central PA. We are observing increased numbers of captured adult moths in sex pheromone traps located at various sites.

Image: Alan Lakso, Cornell
July 21, 2015

By now, everyone should have seen the results of their chemical thinning in apples. In my experience, the first few weeks after thinner application most growers think they took too many fruit off. However, by midsummer the crop load does not look too bad.

June 26, 2015

Thanks to one of our growers we have been advised of a formula error in our spreadsheet.