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Christina Grozinger, Director of the Center for Pollinator Research at Penn State, discusses a holistic approach to fixing the pollinator problem.
Penn State Extension has planned ten educational meetings for commercial tree fruit growers this spring.
Penn State Extension held nine regional educational meetings for commercial tree fruit growers this winter.
The updated Penn State Extension Spray Record-Keeping Spreadsheet for apples, pears, peaches, and cherries is now available from Penn State Extension.
I spent most of the summer writing a review paper on apple rootstocks and came across quite a bit of information that might be of interest to commercial fruit growers.
During the last four weeks we have observed a very sharp increase in the number of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults collected in various monitoring traps placed around orchards located in southern Pennsylvania. After relatively lower levels of infestation on fruit observed during the last two seasons, this 2016 harvest seems to bring back a serious BMSB challenge.
The numbers of brown marmorated stink bug adults are increasing in many orchards. Codling moth adults will be active for at least another 2 to 3 weeks. The fourth generation Oriental fruit moth adults are likely to be present in orchards during all of September and into October.
While the harvest of peaches and nectarines is in a full swing and it is only a matter of a couple of weeks when we will start the fully fledged harvest of apples, it is still important to remember that some important fruit pests are still active and can cause damage of fruit.
Codling moth (CM) second generation adults are very active in most Pennsylvania pome fruit orchards. All stages of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) including young summer adult bugs are being observed in and outside of orchards. The third and probably fourth generation Oriental fruit moth (OFM) adults are also active in both, pome and stone fruit orchards.
Moths of the second generation codling moth, third generation of Oriental fruit moth and the second generations of tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller are active and, if present, the injuries caused by juvenile larval stages will be observed at harvest. Woolly apple aphid (WAA) colonies are being observed in many orchards across the region. Control at the correct timing will help manage second summer generation of San Jose scale crawlers. Adult brown marmorated stink bugs will soon move into orchards from surrounding vegetation. Plan ahead with the choice of products utilized against BMSB, and preserve the most effective options for when the pressure from this pest will increase in the later part of the season.
According to moth captures in sex pheromone traps located in various orchards in south-central PA, the flight of the third generation Oriental fruit moth (OFM) and the second generation of codling moth (CM) just started this past week. It is probably still too early to initiate control of those pests, however at some locations control may be needed within the next 7-14 days.
July is usually a good month to assess the results of early season insect pest management practices and to make sure nothing will be missed for the remaining of the season. Early July also marks the beginning of a much higher pressure from brown marmorated stink bug nymphs and summer adults.
Bumble bees have discriminating palettes when it comes to their pollen meals, according to researchers at Penn State. The researchers found that bumble bees can detect the nutritional quality of pollen, and that this ability helps them selectively forage among plant species to optimize their diets.
This past week we started to see a significant buildup in the numbers of Japanese beetles in many orchards located in southern Pennsylvania. The nymphs of brown marmorated stink are now present in orchards, which indicates a shift from “probable injuries” to actual nymphal feeding (and injuries) on fruit. The end of June is a good time to search for the first male adults of spotted wing drosophila, and traps are a very effective tool to detect increasing populations of SWD.
We continue to observe a strong presence of codling moth adults in pheromone traps placed in commercial apple orchards. Despite the codling moth developmental model suggesting the end of the codling moth egg hatch period (95% eggs hatched by June 25), the presence of moths in the traps in the next few weeks still warrants extended management activities.
This past week (June 1) we finally captured the first moths of obliquebanded leafroller in pheromone traps. This completes the list of establishing important biofixes for the 2016 season. While the first biofix for the earliest active species, redbanded leafroller happened on March 22 (a tie for the earliest ever), the obliquebanded leafroller biofix was one of the latest on record for the Biglerville area. Looking at the degree day accumulation, it appears we are back to an “average year,” with a very similar accumulation of degree days base 43 as during the 2015 season.
A new smartphone application, called MyIPM-NED, was developed to promote integrated disease management for apples, pears, cherries, and cranberries and is available for free for Android and iOS devices. These apps are also able to be used on tablets, as well.
The codling moth egg hatch developmental model provided by SkyBit Inc., initiated on May 7 (biofix in Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center orchards), forecasts about 5 to 10 percent egg hatch to occur on May 30 for the Biglerville area. This is an optimal timing to initiate management activities against codling moth.
This past week we were finally able to establish the biofixes for codling moth and tufted apple budmoth on May 07 and May 10, respectively.
The colder than usual weather during the last two weeks is slowing the normal activities of most insects, including the most important fruit pests. However, while some fruit pests may be slower to complete their development, the current weather will not prevent potential injuries.
The spring weather, and its impact on the development of insects, continues to be a roller coaster ride. The Oriental fruit moth biofix (first sustained moth flights for the season) was established on April 12, the second earliest date on record.
As spring takes hold across the state and country, research and outreach efforts at the University are continuing to combat the decline of bees and other pollinators in an effort to safeguard our environment and the agriculture industry in Pennsylvania and around the world. This issue includes stories on faculty and student pollinator research, features ongoing work at Penn State to assist bees and other pollinators, and provides tips on how everyone can get involved and support pollinator health.
Unusually warm weather in March, despite relatively colder conditions in early April, pushed the development of most insect pests well ahead of a routine timetable.
We are seeing indications that the numbers of green fruitworms and rosy apple aphids will be high this season. Both pests tend to flare in a cool, wet spring due to suppression of predators and other biocontrols.
The calendar still says March but it feels as though it is at least mid April. Be prepared to set out your sex pheromone traps earlier than normal, as they are the simplest tools to accurately establish biofix dates and to precisely monitor the trends in population development through the season. Warm temperatures resulted in increased activity of pear psylla adults, and pre-bloom application(s) of oil should slow down egg laying. San Jose scale nymphs become active when the sap begins to flow in the spring, and they should be controlled pre-bloom or during the first cover spray.
Since 1980 weather patterns such as rainfall quantity and duration, temperature and extreme weather events have become increasingly erratic.
“Tracking the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug” shows growers and others how to identify BMSB, why this pest is important in agriculture, and what’s at stake if we don’t stop it. Four new installments bring important new information about integrated pest management or IPM in terms of biological control, monitoring and trapping, and the iconic pyramid traps. These new videos show just how far our team has come in understanding this peculiar and pernicious creature, and why the newly hatching Trissolcus insect, now in the wild, could change the game.
The Penn State Extension Horticulture, Start Farming, and Pesticide Education Teams have produced three new videos on integrated pest management practices for sustainable establishment and management of apple orchards.
In the last few days we have observed numerous older nymphs and adults of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) moving into orchards from adjacent woods and agronomic crops. Similarly as during the 2014 season, we are detecting brown marmorated stink bugs mostly on the edges of orchards bordering with woods but a much lower BMSB numbers on crops such as soybean or corn.
Although this year the pressure from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) appears to be somehow lower than in previous years, all stages of BMSB are being observed in and outside of orchards.
Researchers at Penn State are investigating how solitary and wild bees are increasingly important in the pollination of crops.
Although this year the pressure from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) appears to be somehow lower than in previous years, all stages of BMSB are being observed in and outside of orchards.
The flight of the second generation codling moth (CM) is underway in most Pennsylvania pome fruit orchards. Only on site CM monitoring will provide accurate information if and for how long control treatments are necessary.
The 2015 season appears to be one of the unique years when the degree-days accumulation are quite close to the average heat accumulation over the last ten years.
The third generation of Oriental fruit moth and the second generation of codling moth are active in most orchards in south-central PA. We are observing increased numbers of captured adult moths in sex pheromone traps located at various sites.
During this past week we observed first brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults maturing from eggs deposited earlier this season by BMSB adults from the overwintering generation. With the arrival of this generation, we expect an intensified movement of BMSB into orchards and more frequent occurrence of fruit injuries caused by this pest.
The fact that spotted wing drosophila is being found in Maryland means that SWD is also likely to be present in warmer areas of Pennsylvania, and in the remainder of Pennsylvania shortly.
The beginning of July is a good time to start searching for the first male adults of spotted wing drosophila. Growers with late sweet cherries and sour cherries as well as blueberries and black raspberries should pay very close attention to possible movement of this pest into their plantings.
We are continuing to observe brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults and nymphs in traps baited with a combination of BMSB aggregation pheromone. Now is the time to look out for the first adult male Spotted Wing Drosophilia.
Thanks to one of our growers we have been advised of a formula error in our spreadsheet.
The beginning of July usually marks a switch in our approach to control common insect pests in orchards.
The potential for injury caused by brown marmorated stink bug adults and nymphs increased significantly during the last two weeks. It is time to start scouting for the presence of leafhoppers, especially in young orchards. Tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller continue to be numerous in pheromone traps.
The numbers of tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller observed in pheromone traps in South-central Pennsylvania are similar to the numbers we observed 10 to 15 years ago, reaching over 100 moths per trap/week. Such high pest population levels require special insecticide applications targeting both leafroller species. This past week during our visual orchard monitoring we found the first eggs and nymphs of brown marmorated stink bug in commercial peach orchard. It is time to start scouting for the presence of leafhoppers, especially white apple leafhopper, potato leafhoppers and rose leafhopper.
The rainfall events experienced this season have prompted questions about the relative “rainfastness” of the insecticides used in fruit production. Precipitation can impact the performance of insecticides, but some compounds resist wash-off.
Up to 60 tufted apple bud moths per pheromone trap per week are being observed in orchards. Colonies of green peach aphid (on stone fruit) and spirea aphid (on stone and pome fruit) are commonly observed in fruit orchards. The presence of predators in 1 out of 5 aphid colonies may lead to successful biological control. Monitor for flagged peach tree terminals to assess efficacy of early season Oriental fruit moth treatments.
Colonies of green peach aphid and spirea aphid are commonly observed in some orchards. Watch for predator populations such as ladybird beetles or syrphid fly larvae. The presence of predators in about one out of five aphid colonies may lead to successful biological control. As we continue to control the wide spectrum of other fruit pests, no special treatment against brown marmorated stink bug should be necessary unless nymphs are found in the orchard.
In the Biglerville area the 2015 biofix for Oriental fruit moth (OFM) was established on April 26; spotted tentiform leafminer on April 12, codling moth on May 07, tufted apple bud moth on May 10 and obliquebanded leafroller on May 21st (Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center [FREC] orchards). According to the insect developmental model provided by SkyBit Inc. as of May 29th the egg hatch of the first OFM generation is already completed while the first generation egg hatch periods for codling moth (CM) and tufted apple budmoth (TABM) are underway and will continue for the next few weeks.
Codling moth egg hatch is at about 10 percent and Oriental fruit moth egg hatch is at almost 100 percent. The flights of obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR) and peach tree borer (PTB) are expected to start within the next few days. Green peach aphid (GPA) (on stone fruit) and spirea aphid (SA) (on stone and pome fruit) colonies are being observed in some orchards. Watch for predator populations such as ladybird beetles or syrphid fly larvae.
As the first insecticide application after petal fall should already be completed in most orchards, it is time to plan for the early summer control of other insect pests.
Generally only a sporadic minor pest, green fruitworm is showing up in orchards across the state in much higher numbers than ever seen before.
Appropriate, effective insecticides should be applied based on orchard monitoring and documented pest control needs. On apples, the after petal fall insecticide application represents the best timing to control plum curculio and European apple sawfly. The petal fall timing on apples will also be a good time to control Oriental fruit moth, obliquebanded leafroller, mites and aphids.
Brown marmorated stink bug adults are slowly emerging from their overwintering shelters. The five percent egg hatch of Oriental fruit moth (and the optimal timing to start controlling OFM) is expected around May 7th in the Biglerville area. All pheromone traps for monitoring fruit pests except traps for obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR) and peach tree borer (PTB) should already be placed in orchards.
At the petal fall timing on pears, all stages of pear psylla - eggs, nymphs, and adults - are usually present on infested trees. Petal fall control options are presented in this article.
As colder weather influences the general development of insect pests, the low temperatures this spring are influencing moth activities and pushing this year’s biofixes (first sustained flight of moths) to the latest dates on record. It cannot be overstated how important it is to aggressively monitor all insect pests in each orchard, especially with the additional pressure coming from brown marmorated stink bug.
Domestic honey bee hives are down by 59% compared to 60 years ago with rapid declines over the last forty years. This long term decline was punctuated by recent average losses of 30% per winter since 2006. The populations of some native bee species may also be declining.
Pollinators need a diverse, abundant food source and a place to build their nests and rear their young. As land managers, if we keep these two elements in mind we can encourage native bee populations.
Hannah Burrack in the Department of Entomology at NC State has put together a survey to quantify spotted wing drosophila's impact on berry growers in the Eastern U.S. While Hannah coordinates the survey, she shares the information with others. In fact, you can see the last 2 years’ results when you visit the site with the survey hyperlink below.
Another pest that has flared due to BMSB sprays has been San Jose Scale (SJS). SJS is a relatively easy pest to control with many different control options added in the last 10 years. Paradoxically, it is a pest that is better prevented than cured.
On November 3, 2014 the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture announced the discovery of a new invasive insect species, spotted lanternfly, Lycorna delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). This new species of fulgorid hopper (i.e., planthoppers), also known under the name of spot clothing wax cicada, is native to China and South-East Asia where it has one generation per season. Both nymphs and adults are known to feed on wood (sap feeding) of multiple tree species including fruit trees and grapes. Areas in Berks County, PA are currently under quarantine regulations to stop the spread of this new invasive insect pest.
As we get into apple harvest in earnest, fruit growers are starting to find out whether or not they have much injury from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). Although injury from this pest for the early varieties was less than in the past, many growers are probably wondering whether to put that last spray or two on later varieties as insurance against late season injury.
The captures of tufted apple budmoth, obliquebanded leafroller and codling moth appear to be on the decline, but the fourth generation of Oriental fruit moth is likely to still be present in orchards during September and into October. Brown marmorated stink bug monitoring traps placed on trees located on the border of woods as well as traps placed in the first row of orchards, which sparsely collected any stink bugs for most of the current season, now are collecting many nymphs and adults.
As most of us know, our IPM systems were turned upside down after the introduction of BMSB around 2010. For the majority of apple growers that had to give up on their IPM programs to use harsh pesticides to control BMSB, this article contains some guidelines and control strategies for minimizing the impacts on mites for the next season.
Traps placed on trees located on the border of woods as well as traps placed in the first row of orchards, which rarely collected any stink bugs for most of this season, now are collecting many brown marmorated stink bug nymphs and adults. Since not every orchard will experience the same pressure from BMSB, cautious scouting and monitoring of the vegetation surrounding an orchard should be very helpful in deciding if any special stink bug control treatment is necessary.
Moderate temperatures observed so far this month extended the flights of the second generation of tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller. Colder than usual weather also stretched the traditional periods when the control of these two pests may be needed.
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) that are in the remaining blackberries and blueberries being harvested could build up and move into adjacent late season raspberries. If your trap catches are high and you have had some problems with infested fruit, consider a post-harvest spray to reduce populations that are feeding on the last unpicked berries and dropped fruit.
Some of the commonly used developmental models seem to be overestimating the pace of development for codling moth and Oriental fruit moth populations in some orchards. Please use on-site monitoring as the main indicator in deciding if and when a pesticide application is necessary. All stages of brown marmorated stink bug are being observed in and outside of orchards with some locations already reporting injured fruit.
Spotted wing drosophila can attack ripening fruit, but like all other fruit flies, breed in decaying fruit. Trap catches are increasing in blackberry and late season raspberries and sprays should be maintained in blackberries until harvest is complete. Sprays on late season raspberries should start now if there is any color showing on the berries.
More than half the flies caught in traps this week were spotted wing drosophila rather than the usual 5% or less. As blueberry harvest finishes in the region, blackberry and grape remain the main crops currently at risk and should be kept covered with short pre-harvest interval insecticides.
Some of the commonly used developmental models seem to be overestimating the pace of development for codling moth and Oriental fruit moth populations in some orchards. Therefore, such models are not very reliable indicators of the actual pest situation. Please use on-site monitoring as the main indicator in deciding if and when pesticide application is necessary.
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) numbers are up in most Pennsylvania and Maryland locations, and late blueberries and blackberries are at risk. Commercial SWD lures are supposed to last only 4 weeks and should be changed out soon.
While in most orchards the brown marmorated stink bug numbers are still very low, at some locations we spotted the first fruit injuries caused by this pest. Populations of spotted wing drosophila might be higher than in the past this season due to tart cherry blocks that were not harvested because of a light crop and their potential as reservoirs for SWD populations to build.
Second generation flights of tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller are underway in South-Central PA orchards, and third generation Oriental fruit moth and second generation codling moth flights are beginning. During our weekly searches on various actual and potential BMSB hosts we are continuously finding all instars of brown marmorated stink bug.
Four of 7 spotted wing drosophila found this week were in black raspberries which are finishing up in Pennsylvania and shouldn’t be an issue at this point. First captures occurred in blueberry, grape and blackberry.
According to moth captures in sex pheromone traps located in various orchards in South-central Pennsylvania the third generation of Oriental fruit moth (OFM) and the second generation of codling moth (CM) just started. The first summer Brown Marmorated Stink Bug adult generation is imminent. While in the majority of orchards the numbers are still very low, at some locations we observed the first fruit injuries caused by this pest.
The first male adults of spotted wing drosophila were observed in traps placed in nearby northern Maryland. European red mite populations are increasing in some orchards.
With the cold winter last season, we are expecting a higher than normal winter mortality, and hopefully a later than usual emergence of spotted wing drosophila. At this time, we do not believe cherries are at risk and that we probably have at least another week before the first flies will be caught.
We are collecting brown marmorated stink bug adults and nymphs (first week of capturing nymphs) in traps located in fruit orchards and baited with a combination of BMSB aggregation pheromone. Also, earlier this past week we received a notice from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture confirming the EPA approval for Section 18 Emergency Registration for PA of bifenthrin (pyrethroid, IRAC Group 3A). Japanese beetles are present in orchards located in southern Pennsylvania.
Brown marmorated stink bug nymphs are now present in orchards, which means a shift from “probable BMSB injuries” to actual nymphal feeding (and injuries) on fruit. From mid July until November, traps baited with commercially available, BMSB lures are very effective in detecting and capturing BMSB adults and nymphs. Green/spirea aphids, leafhoppers (potato, white apple and rose) and leafminers are the insects to watch for during the month of July.
This week marked the second consecutive week of increased captures of Oriental fruit moth (OFM) in pheromone traps placed both in peach and apple orchards. BMSB nymphs are present in orchards, which means a shift from “probable BMSB injuries” to actual nymphal feeding (and injuries) on fruit.
Pesticides can have benefits, but they can also have undesirable side effects. Our job in integrated pest management (IPM) is to make sure that if a pesticide is to be used, its benefits outweigh the undesirable side effects.
First generation codling moth flight is occurring in apple and pear orchards, and moth captures in pheromone traps should serve as the main indicators if and for how long control will be needed. The next two weeks will represent the best timings for the control of tufted apple budmoth and obliquebanded leafroller. The larvae of first generation Oriental fruit moth are feeding either in growing shoots or inside developing stone fruit.
This week we observed the first hatched eggs and instar nymphs. The presence of BMSB nymphs in the orchards means a shift from “probable BMSB injuries” to actual nymphal feeding (and injuries) on fruit and the change from “migratory” pest status of BMSB adults to “resident” pest for nymphs. The insect pest control updates presented below are for South-central Pennsylvania based on observations in Adams County. To view the insect hatch and trapping data for all major insect pests, please visit the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center (FREC) website, and click on "Growing Season Updates" (on the left)
Although brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults still continue to emerge from their overwintering shelters, this past week we observed the first BMSB eggs deposited on fruit trees. First generation codling moth (CM) flight is underway in apple and pear orchards.
If adult stink bugs are observed in stone fruit orchards, a special BMSB directed treatment may be warranted. If hand applied mating disruption (MD) materials (Isomate products) are planned for the control of dogwood borer and/or peach tree borer or lesser peach tree borer, now is the latest time to place dispensers in orchards.
2014 season weekly average captures of adult moths in pheromone traps and accumulated degree-days base 43°F.
The after petal fall treatment on apples is the best time to control plum curculio and European apple sawfly. During the 2014 season, the after petal fall insecticide treatment on apples (and shuck split on peaches) should also be effective in controlling Oriental fruit moth.
In the majority of orchards no stink bug control activities are required at this time. It is time to start more intensive insect pest management activities in peach orchards. The petal fall treatment on peaches should focus on controlling Oriental fruit moth and plum curculio. Pheromone traps for monitoring spotted tentiform leaf miner, Oriental fruit moth, redbanded leafroller, European apple sawfly, codling moth, tufted apple budmoth and lesser peach tree borer should already be placed in orchards.
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) started emerging from overwintering shelters. In the majority of orchards no stink bug control activities are required at this time. If hand applied mating disruption materials are planned for the control of codling moth, Oriental fruit moth, dogwood borer, peach tree borer or lesser peach tree borer, now is a time to place dispensers in orchards.
Recently, there has been a lot of press related to pollinator health, and some troubling information indicates that certain fungicides, when used during bloom, can negatively affect the health of honey bees. This is a complicated problem with the solutions relying on understanding the detailed relationships among chemicals, pollinators and pest management needs. It is not prudent to treat this topic with a broad brush with statements such as "All neonicotinoid insecticides are bad for all pollinator species," or "No fungicides should be sprayed during bloom." Research is on-going, and we do not know all of the details yet.
The 2014 spring temperatures—the lowest Degree Day accumulations in the last 10+ years—are keeping development of most insects at a slower pace than experienced during previous seasons. So far, all insect biofixes are later than in the past. It appears the lower temperatures, which are slowing the growth of plants, are also helpful in lowering the initial spring pressure from brown marmorated stink bugs.
As you begin thinking about your IPM scouting program for the new season, consider the value of field guide for proper identification of orchard pests and beneficials. The Tree Fruit Field Guide to Insect, Mite, and Disease Pests and Natural Enemies of Eastern North America includes 500 color photos, actual size drawings of pests, over 20 pages of diagnostic keys.
The Orchard Spray Record-Keeping Spreadsheet has been updated and is available at the Penn State Tree Fruit Production website (http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit). New features include the addition of FRAC codes and pages for supplying additional information required by processors.
Researchers and growers explain management methods for BMSB such as insecticides, trap cropping, physical barriers, and organic and biological control techniques—in a new video.
The Penn State Extension Integrated Pest Management web site has a Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) page. This web page contains links to some very good SWD publications, including updated Penn State Fact Sheets on the fruit pest.
The numbers of brown marmorated stink bug adults and nymphs collected in traps monitored by our entomology program are very high, much higher than during the 2012 season (as of September 6). If BMSB nymphs are spotted inside any orchard, a control treatment is needed immediately. The third generation of codling moth and fourth generation of Oriental fruit moth are continuing their flights and egg deposition in many orchards. While the CM flight should cease within the next 2 weeks, the OFM will continue its flight and egg deposition until at least mid October.
Wild and managed non-honey bee species have long supplemented honeybee pollination in fruit orchards, but most pollination has been attributed to the honeybee. In light of the recent decline of honeybee populations, pollen bees will serve an even more integral role in fruit tree pollination and a number of Pennsylvania fruit growers have relied exclusively on pollen bees for pollination for over 5 years with no noticeable loss in fruit quality or yield.
In an ongoing effort to protect bees and other pollinators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed new pesticide labels that prohibit use of some neonicotinoid pesticide products where bees are present.
The tables below present weekly adult moth captures in pheromone traps and degree day comparisons for 2008 to 2013.
With the growing season winding down and most of our traditional fruit pests well under control and not present in orchards, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) continues to represent the most important threat to our apple crop.
At this stage in the season, commercially available traps and lures for brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) monitoring could provide valuable information to decide if insecticide treatments are needed. Last week (week of Aug 5th), in some traps monitored by our entomology program, we collected over 50 BMSB nymphs and adults per trap. The second generation of codling moth (CM), the third generation Oriental fruit moth and second generations of tufted apple bud moth and obliquebanded leafroller are continuing their flights in most Pennsylvania pome fruit orchards. As the season progresses and the trees become larger, often the volume of used water per acre should be increased. Even the most efficacious pest management products will not work if the spray coverage is not sufficient.