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Fire Blight Risk

Posted: March 29, 2012

Apple fruit bud development at the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center in Biglerville is pre-pink to pink, with a few blossoms open on Pink Lady. Fire blight risk to date, based on the MaryBlyt Prediction Program and Campbell Scientific Weather Data Systems, are presented in the attached graph.
Dr. Noemi Halbrendt, Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center, Plant Pathology Associate

Dr. Noemi Halbrendt, Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center, Plant Pathology Associate

Fire blight bacteria overwinter in the margins of cankers on branches and trunks. Once the temperature reaches about 65°F, bacteria begin to multiply and appear on the outsides of the cankers in drops of clear to amber-colored ooze. The bacteria are spread to blossoms primarily by rain with some transmission by flies and ants. Blossom-to-blossom transmission is carried out mainly by bees and other insects that visit the flowers. Insects also transmit bacteria to growing shoots. If the temperature is 65°F or above and relative humidity is 60 percent or more, or there is rain, new infections can occur. At 75°F, blossom blight and shoot blight will be evident in 4 to 5 days. Bacterial ooze appears on the new infections soon after the symptoms, providing additional sources of bacteria for new infections. In early to midsummer, during prolonged periods of muggy weather, blighted shoots and spurs, infected fruit, and new branch cankers all may have droplets of ooze on them.

 

The bacteria usually enter the flowers through natural openings such as stomates. Wounds are also important entry points to leaves, shoots, and fruit. Aphids, leafhoppers, lygus bugs, and other insects with piercing mouthparts may transfer fire blight bacteria directly into susceptible tissues. Wounds from hail often lead to a severe outbreak of fire blight. Any fresh wound can serve as an entry point.