2011 Field Trial Results
Penn State Southeast Research and Extension Center, Lancaster County, PA.
This study was an herbicide application timing study to determine how effective glyphosate is on the weed population.
This location was interseeded into standing corn on June 16, 2011. The Penn State mix was planted at a rate of 12 lb/acre and the plots were side-dressed with nitrogen and sprayed with glyphosate.
The corn was harvested for grain in early October 2011. In this field there was a fair to good establishment of crimson clover. Ryegrass growth on the edge of the field was very good, but was reduced under the corn canopy. One lesson learned on this site is that crimson clover can persist through the summer in some situations where ryegrass establishment may be limited.
Figure 1. Growth of ryegrass on the edge of the field
Field Located in Juniata County, PA
The purpose of this study was an interseeding demonstration plot to assess various clover and radish species.
This site is a dairy farm where crimson clover was interseeded at a rate of 12 lbs/ acre into standing corn.
Crops were interseeded on July 1, 2011 along with an Nitrogen side-dressing and glyphosate application. This corn was harvested for grain in mid-October 2011.
In this field there was a fair to good establishment of crimson clover but limited establishment of the other crops. Dry matter yields of 1516 lbs/acre of crimson clover was measured. This was another environment where the crimson clover appeared to establish where some other species were limited.
Figure 2. There was a good establishment of clover but low establishment of other crops.
Centre County, PA, Field Location #1
On this farm, annual ryegrass and the Penn State mix were interseeded to demonstrate the potential fall and winter grazing of dairy cows.
The site is in a riparian buffer zone near a creek. This site was interseeded into standing corn on July 6, 2011 with side dressing and a glyphosate application. The seeding rates for annual rye grass was 20 lbs/acre and 12 and 24 lbs/acre of the Penn State mix.
The corn was partially harvested for silage in early October and the remainder as ear corn. This field had an excellent establishment of ryegrass with some crimson clover. There were plans to use this land for grazing cattle in the fall. It was noted that the cover crop was attracting deer to graze on the clover prior to corn harvest. Dry matter yields averaged 2051 lbs/acre for annual ryegrass and 2489 lbs/acre for the Penn State mix.
The lesson from this demonstration was that in some fields where planting was delayed and no cover crops would be feasible, it may be possible to establish a functional cover crop with interseeding that provides erosion control, nutrient uptake, feed production and wildlife benefits.
Figure 3. The interseeder was used on a riparian buffer zone near a creek.
Centre County, PA, Field Location #2
This was a farm in where annual ryegrass and the Penn State mix were interseeded for the purpose of fall or winter grazing.
The seeding rates at this farm were the same as the previous Centre county location. Interseeding took place into standing corn on July 6, 2011 along with side-dressing and a glyphosate application. The corn height was 24-30 inches tall at the time of seeding and application.
In this field, the ryegrass germinated immediately and became well established. Ryegrass growth was excellent under the corn canopy. The corn at this site was harvest in mid-November as ear corn and averaged 153 bu/acre. The interseeded ryegrass produced dry matter yields averaging 2026 lbs/acre. The owner of this location grazed mules on this field following corn harvest. This was a good example of how an interseeded plot could provide significant fall grazing following a corn crop.
Figure 4. Interseeded cover crops from this farm were used for grazing.
Centre County, PA, Field Location #3
On this farm several species of cover crops were investigated for interseeding, including birdsfoot trefoil, ryegrass, the Penn State mix, and tillage radish.
This farm experienced severe drought and corn yields averaged about 70 bu/acre. Establishment of some of the crops was fair and limited by the drought in the summer, but growth continued through the fall and resulted in fair to good stands in the fall for some species such as the ryegrass and the tillage radish. This was our only use of tillage radish in an interseeded plot.
Field Located in Ephrata, PA
This farm site was another interseeding demonstration site with the purpose of preventing soil erosion on a sloping hillside.
The operator was interested in minimizing runoff on one of their sloping fields with interseeded cover crops. This site was interseeded with several different clover species. The interseeding into standing corn was conducted on June 24, 2011 with side-dressing and a glyphosate application.
Although there was a successful establishment at this site, no matter data was collected. This field had glyphosate resistant horseweed. After treating this field, it was realized that in some cases other post-emergent directed herbicides could be more effective than glyphosate and the interseeder could provide a post direct application of those materials.
Figure 5. Cover crops were interseeded on a sloping hill.
Title2011 Field Trial Results
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