Livestock and Wildlife


Pasture bloat is primarily a problem of cattle that graze pastures where legumes make up greater than 50% of the total forage.


Horses are used in a wide variety of activities throughout Pennsylvania and adjoining states. Most of these horses are owned and managed for recreation or sport rather than for profit. One of the main expenses in owning a horse is feed. To minimize feed costs, it is important to keep horses healthy and feed them a balanced ration that meets their nutritional needs.


The use of orchardgrass minimizes deer feeding and provides the greatest yields.

Both grain sorghum and especially forage sorghum have more resistance to deer damage than does corn. Consequently, they are also adapted to fields where deer damage makes corn production unprofitable.


Warm-season grasses such as big bluestem and switchgrass can provide forage for animals throughout the summer months when cool-season grasses become less productive.